### Time (2008)

Robert Howard Kroepel
Time
The Essence of Time--The Time-Interval
The Arrow of Time
Simultaneity
Is Time Causal?/A Source of Causality?
Charles Proteus Steinmetz: The Fundamental Law of Physics
The Law of Inertia and Its Corollaries

#### Time

Time (A) is the temporal principle by which a duration called a time-interval (TI), which can be and most often is modeled after a periodic cycle, a recurring motion, can be chosen for a unit of temporal measurement which can be used for the measurement of the durations between the occurrences of events, the durations of single events, and the durations of objects and the generation of the rate of ticking, timepoints and timeline of a clock, and (B) the temporal process which is the physical manifestation of the temporal principle in a clock or watch whose rate of ticking, set of timepoints, and timeline, is generated by its time-interval, whose timepoints can be used to determine if or not events are simultaneous, when simultaneity is defined as two or more events occurring at the same timepoint (a definition which fits the modern definition of simultaneity found in the Oxford Dictionary of Physics), and whose timeline generates the arrow of time, the direction of temporal measurement, wherein measurement means “counting” and ‘counting’ means starting from an origin, such as the current NOW, at which we have a combination of both a timepoint and a configuration of the universal matter/energy (m/e), and time as a measurement process, the temporal measurement process, obviously requires the mathematical principle of addition as in timecounts which are accumulations of additional combinations of timepoints + universal m/e configurations into the future which will exist in contrast to subtracting as in timecounts of previous combinations of timepoints + universal m/e configurations into the past which while once existed do not exist now and will never exist in the future.

Time is thus (A) an abstract principle, a general principle of time, which is the temporal principle, and (B) an actual process, the specific process of time, a physical manifestation of the temporal principle in a timepiece such as a clock or a watch, which is the temporal process.

Thus, if you drop your watch, and it breaks, although that specific physical manifestation of the temporal principle no longer measures time as designed, time as the abstract temporal principle is not destroyed.

The temporal principle, the abstract aspect of time, the general principle of time, is an objective reality that has been, is now and always will be independent of observers b/c it has been, is now, and always will be available to all individuals who needed to, need to, or will need to measure the durations between events and the durations of events as well as objects, and to determine the simultaneity of events. I.e., when individuals become aware of their need to measure the durations between events and the durations of events and objects and to determine the simultaneity of events then they will become aware of the temporal principle and will subsequently find a way to physically manifest the temporal principle in a timepiece such as a clock or watch of some kind.

The temporal process, the specific process of time, the physical manifestation of the temporal principle in a timepiece such as a clock or watch, is in fact, by its nature of being a physical manifestation, a physical reality.

The motions of objects change, and the temporal process can be used to determine the rate at which the motions of objects change.

Objects can endure, and the temporal process can be used to measure the durations of objects.

Events generally have shorter durations than relevant objects; both the durations of events and the durations between events can be measured by the temporal process.

NOTE: A duration of an object can be labeled an event, but that label would require all objects be labeled to be events, a requirement that would obfuscate the definition of an event.

#### The Essence of Time—The Time-Interval

The essence of time is the time-interval (TI), which is the unit of temporal measurement.

A TI could be variable or invariable.

The variable time-interval (VTI) is manifest in a variable time-interval clock (VTIC), whose rate of ticking, set of timepoints, and timeline change inversely with increases and decreases in the clock’s mass-energy caused by forces which cause accelerations and decelerations and therefore changes of the clock’s inertial state and its reference frame.

When a VTIC is accelerated, its mass-energy increases and its time-interval increases, its rate of ticking slows down, and the durations between timepoints on its timeline increase.

The invariable time-interval (ITI) is manifest in an invariable time-interval clock (ITIC), whose rate of ticking, set of timepoints, and timeline do not change inversely with increases and decreases in the clock’s mass-energy caused by forces which cause accelerations and decelerations and therefore changes of the clock’s inertial state and its reference frame because the ITI is adjusted to compensate for changes of the clock’s mass-energy.

We thus find two time-intervals, the VTI and the ITI, and two clocks, the VTIC and the ITIC.

VTIs and VTICs measure local time (LT) in single unique reference frames, and they generate timepoints which can be used to determine the simultaneity of events with a single reference frame. A VTIC is therefore a local time clock (LTC).

Restated: When time is measured by variable time-intervals, i.e., time-intervals which are not adjusted to compensate for changes in their durations caused by changes in their host clocks’ inertial mass-energies caused by forces which caused accelerations or decelerations of their host clocks, the time measured is local time, the time which is unique to each reference frame/body of reference.

VTICs are designed to be VTICs because their TIs become VTIs because they are not adjusted to compensate for the changes of their host-clocks’ mass-energies caused by forces which cause accelerations and decelerations.

ITIs and ITICs measure absolute time (AT) or universal time (UT) in multiple different reference frames, and they generate timepoints which can be used to determine the simultaneity of events in multiple different reference frames. An ITIC is therefore an absolute time clock (ATC) or a universal time clock (UTC).

Restated: When time is measured by invariable time-intervals, i.e., time-intervals which are adjusted to compensate for changes in their durations caused by changes in their host clocks’ inertial mass-energies caused by forces which caused accelerations or decelerations of their host clocks, e.g., time-intervals in clocks which, by being adjusted to compensate for accelerations and decelerations, are “independent of the state of motion of [their bodies] of reference” (Einstein’s requirement/specification, in Relativity, p.  for clocks which are capable of measuring universal/absolute time), e.g., the satellite atomic clocks in the US GPS nav system, the time measured is universal/absolute time.

Albert Einstein, Relativity, Chapter IX:

“Now before the advent of the theory of relativity it had always tacitly been assumed in physics that the statement of time had an absolute significance, i.e. that it is independent of the state of motion of the body of reference.” [p. 27]

Albert Einstein, The Meaning of Relativity:

If we are given the Cartesian co-ordinates xv, and the time, t, of an event relatively to one inertial system, K, how can we calculate the co-ordinates x’v, and the time, t’, of the same event relatively to an inertial system K’ which moves with uniform translation [is not rotating] relatively to K? In the pre-relativity physics this problem was solved by making ... two hypotheses

1. Time is absolute; the time of an event. t’, relatively to K’ is the same as the time [t] relatively to K. If instantaneous signals could be sent to a distance, and if no one knew that the state of motion of a clock had no influence on its rate, then this assumption could be physically validated. For then clocks, similar to each other, and regulated alike, could be distributed over systems K and K’, at rest relatively to them, and their indications would be independent of the state of motion of the systems; the time of an event would then be given by the clock in its immediate neighborhood.

2. Length is absolute; if an interval at rest relatively to K, has a length s, then it has the same length s, relatively to a system K’ which is in motion relatively to K. [p. 25.]

We note that in the above Einstein has given us the specifications required for an absolute space-interval/ASI, or universal space-interval/USI, which can be used for measuring absolute space/AS, or universal space/US, and he has also given us the specifications required for an absolute time-interval/ATI, or universal time-interval/UTI, which is an invariable time-interval/ITI, which can be used to measure absolute time/AT via an absolute time clock/ATC, which is an ITIC, or universal time/UT to be measured via a universal time clock/UTC, which also is an ITIC.

Thus, the concept of absolute time, or universal time, the time measured by ATIs in ATCs, UTIs in UTCs, or ITIs in ITICs, did not appear to be a reality for Einstein and other physicists because they could not find examples of physical manifestations of the temporal principle of absolute time.

ITICs are designed to be ITICs because their TIs are adjusted to become ITIs because they are adjusted to compensate for the changes of their host-clocks’ mass-energies caused by forces which cause accelerations and decelerations.

ITICS are of two basic designs: (1) The master clock<->slave clock ITIC configuration wherein a master clock sends radio signals to adjust the TI of a slave clock and thereby cause the TI to become an ITI and the slave clock to become an ITIC; this master clock<->slave clock configuration remains an ITIC configuration so long as the master clock remains stable and the master clock<->slave clock relationship also remains stable: these types of ITICs are found in the US GPS navigation system; (2) The motion-sensing self-adjusting ITIC configuration wherein accelerometers (and decelerometers) sense changes of the motion of a clock and send information to an onboard computer which then makes adjustments to the clock’s TI to cause it to become an ITI and the clock to become an ITIC; these types of ITICs are likely to be found in inertial guidance systems in aircraft, spacecraft, surface ships, and submarines.

A timecount is the counting of time-intervals.

The type of time-interval, VTI v ITI, to be used as the unit of temporal measurement for a timecount has to be arbitrarily chosen.

The arbitrary choice of the type of time-interval, VTI v ITI, will determine the type of timepiece, or clock or watch, VTIC v ITIC, to be used for the temporal process.

A timecount has to begin at an arbitrarily chosen origin.

When an ITI is chosen for the unit of measurement of time, the ITI in ITICs generates a Continuum of Universal Time—the continuum of the time measured by invariable time-intervals.

There are two general possibilities for a Continuum of Universal Time.

The Bi-Directional Continuum of Universal Time: Past Infinity <- ... <- T-2 <- T-1 <- T0 (Origin) -> T+1 -> T+2 -> ... -> Infinity Future,

The Uni-Directional Continuum of Universal Time: T0 (Origin) -> T1 -> T2 -> ... -> Tn (Infinity Future)

where

T = Timepoint
T0 = Origin
n = Last the last number, n, of a series.
Infinite/Infinity = (Physics) Having no spatial, temporal or physical limitations
Finite/Finity = (Physics) Having spatial, temporal and/or physical limitations

We note that a continuum is regarded to be a non-divisible whole.

American Heritage Dictionary
continuum

1. A continuous extent, succession, or whole, no part of which can be distinguished from neighboring parts except by arbitrary division.
2. Mathematics
2.1. A set having the same number of points as all the real numbers in an interval.
2.2. The set of all real numbers.

The American Heritage¨ Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition

WordNet
continuum
noun
a continuous nonspatial whole or extent or succession in which no part or portion is distinct or distinguishable from adjacent parts

WordNet¨ 3.0, © 2006 by Princeton University.

Thus, although the Bi-Directional Continuum of Universal Time appears to be divisible into two parts from the T0 (Origin) the fact is that it is nevertheless a continuous whole.

#### The Arrow of Time

The Arrow of Time: Past — Present/NOW — Future —>

The arrow of time is the flow of timecounting/temporal measurement.

The Bi-Directional Continuum of Universal Time enables us (A) to regard time as extending infinitely into the past (there will be an infinite number of timepoints extending into the past) and extending infinitely into the future (there will be an infinite number of timepoints extending into the future) and (B) to regard time as having a direction which generates the arrow of time from the past through the present into the future when the timecount moves from the infinite past through the present NOW into the infinite future.

The Uni-Directional Continuum of Universal Time enables us (A) to regard time as extending from an arbitrarily chosen T0 (Origin) into the future and (B) to regard time as having a direction which generates the arrow of time from the T0 (Origin) into the infinite future.

Note that although there appear to be two Universal Continuums of Time, the fact remains that by human choice the direction of temporal measurement, or timecount, of the durations between events or the durations of events, the arrow of time, is from past timepoints through the current timepoint (the current NOW) into future timepoints, and, therefore, by human choice, the direction of temporal measurement is uni-directional.

The physical fact is that the direction of time is also uni-directional, i.e., the physical arrow of time is from the past through the present into the future, b/c physical phenomena, esp. physical events, occur from the past through the present into the future, and the temporal measurement thereof can only concur with the direction of the occurrences of physical events, e.g., events can only be recorded at new timepoints on the universal timeline, the Continuum of Universal Time.

Theoretically, b/c the direction of time is uni-directional, from the past through the present into the future, if a reversal of the inertial states of the people, objects and events comprised of the universal m/e were to occur for reasons which are currently unknown and in reality are physically impossible, this reversal would NOT cause a change in the direction of the universal timecount, i.e., the direction of the universal timecount would continue to be uni-directional, and the reversal would occur at a timepoint in the future—at a future timepoint, and the positions of the people, objects and events comprised of the universal m/e resulting from the reversal would be recorded at future timepoints and not at past timepoints.

As each timepoint on a timeline occurs, there is a corresponding and coincidental configuration of the universal matter/energy (m/e). Within the universal m/e configuration objects will endure and/or change position/motions/inertial states, resulting in a change of the universal m/e configuration from timepoint to timepoint.

Note that there is one-and-only-one universal m/e configuration; its relationship to a timepoint is coincidental b/c the universal m/e configuration at a specific timepoint only occurs during that timepoint, i.e., there is no accumulation of sets of timepoints + universal m/e configurations. Records, such as photographs, audio recordings, videotapes, etc., may exist to show what was the universal m/e configuration at a specific timepoint, but we note that those records exist in the present timepoint and therefore do not represent a previous real/actual timepoint + universal m/e configuration combination.

#### Simultaneity

When simultaneity is defined as two or more events occurring at  the same timepoint, then the timepoints of a clock generated by a specific time-interval can be used to determine the simultaneity of events.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simultaneity

Simultaneity

Simultaneity is the property of two events happening at the same time in at least one reference frame.

The Oxford Dictionary of Physics
Alan Isaacs, ed.
Oxford University Press, Fourth Edition, 2000

simultaneity The condition in which two or more events occur at the same instant.

Local simultaneity/LSim is the determination of the occurrences of two or more events in a single reference rame/upon s single body of reference at the same local timepoint generated by identical local time clocks/LTCs—identical VTICs.

Absolute simultaneity/ASim or universal simultaneity/USim is the determination of the occurrences of two or more events in different reference frames at the same universal timepoint generated by identical absolute or universal time clocks/ATCs or UTCs—identical ITICs.

#### Is Time Causal/A Source of Causality?

Causality = People/objects/events comprised of matter/energy causing (A) changes of inertial states of pre-existing people/objects/events or (B) new people/objects/events from pre-existing matter/energy.

Object = Atomic/molecular organization/pattern which creates what can be identified as a unity (or an entity) and which retains its identity longer than a relevant event.

Examples: A woman named Jane, a ball, a man named Dick.

Event = Relationships between/among people/objects, esp. a causal relationship.

Example: Jane throws the ball to Dick: Jane is the cause of the event wherein the ball travels through the air to Dick.

A cause is a condition; an effect is a consequence.

Causal Sequence: 1. Cause(s)/Condition(s) -> 2. Effect(s)/Consequence(s).

The true/absolute causal sequence can be observed by the use of ITICs to measure the timepoints at which the causes/conditions were present and the effects/consequences occurred.

By the Continuum of Universal Time, which is the Continuum of Time generated and measured by identical ITICs which generate identical timepoints for all observers regardless of their reference frames or bodies of reference, and the concept and principle of absolute simultaneity, which is the determination of the simultaneity of different events in different reference frames/upon different bodies of reference, a set of causes/conditions will occur at one universal timepoint and a relevant effect/consequence will occur at a later universal timepoint.

Where time is the measurement of the occurrences of events or the measurement of the durations of objects or events, then time is not causal—time does not cause events to occur nor objects to endure.

Therefore, time is not causal.

#### Charles Proteus Steinmetz: The Fundamental Law of Physics

Charles Proteus Steinmetz.
Four Lectures on Relativity and Space.
Dover Publications, Inc., 180 Varick Street, New York, NY 10014 1967
pp. 49–50.

The fundamental law of physics is the law of inertia. “A body keeps the same state as long as there is no cause to change its state.” That is, it remains at rest or continues the same kind of motionÑthat is, motion with the same velocity in the same directionÑuntil some cause changes it, and such cause we call a ‘force.’ “ [Quotes in the original, but not attributed to anyone.]

This is really not merely a law of physics, but it is the fundamental law of logic. It is the law of cause and effect: “Any effect must have a cause, and without cause there can be no effect.” This is axiomatic and is the fundamental conception of all knowledge, because all knowledge consists in finding the cause of some effect or the effect of some cause, and therefore must presuppose that every effect has some cause, and inversely. [Quotes in the original but not attributed to anyone.]

#### The Law of Inertia and Its Corollaries

The Law of Inertia: An object having an inertial state of being at rest or in motion retains its inertial state and thereby remains at rest or in motion until acted upon by a force.

The Corollaries of the Law of Inertia:

1. A force is a form of matter/energy which is a push or pull which can cause accelerations and decelerations which cause changes of inertial states of objects.
2. Only a force can cause a change of the inertial state of an object comprised of matter and/or energy.
3. The observation of a change of inertial state implies its cause to be a force of some kind.

If a change of the inertial state of an object within a volume is observed, or if changes of the inertial states of objects within a volume are observed (for quantities of objects at QM scalar levels), then a force is implied to be the cause and is therefore present, and a force is comprised of a form of matter/energy.

The Law of Inertia and The Corollaries of the Law of Inertia show the precise nature of causality, inre forces being causes that cause effects.

In logical arguments, Ps are the conditions/causes which must be present to cause a Q/consequence/effect.

The relationship between Ps & Qs can be summarized and therefore described by If P, Then Q logical arguments wherein P -> Q, or 1. P -> 2. Q, and the physical connection between P and Q is physically necessary (inertial changesÑQsÑhave not happened/do not happen/will not happen without forcesÑPs, therefore Ps cause Qs) as well as logically sound.

The temporal process is a measurement process and as a measurement it is not a causal process; the temporal measurement of the occurrences and/or durations of events does not cause those events to occur/not occur.

The determination of the simultaneity of events does not cause the events to be simultaneous/not simultaneous.

Imagine a combination of a universal timepoint + the universal m/e configuration (at that timepoint) as a specific combination which is recordable by a 3D hologram which is capable of recording the specific spacepoints occupied by objects (disregard relativity for this thought experiment) in which at the specific timepoint all objects occupy specific spacepoints; at the next specific timepoint, another 3D hologram would record the spacepoints which the objects occupied, therefore, obviously, the 3D holograms would reveal which objects changed spacepoints and therefore occupied new spacepoints and which objects retained spacepoints and therefore endured at those spacepoints, and, thus, the 3D holograms would be recordings/histories of both change and duration.

Thus, when each timepoint is linked to a universal m/e configuration, the arrow of time is accumulative, additive, a timecounting into the future, the future in which new timepoints will coincide with new configurations of the universal m/e, and never subtractive, a timecounting into the past, except for records/recordings/histories/timelines of past/previous combinations of timepoints + universal m/e configurations.

Thus, by its essence, the operational definition of time gives us (A) the measurement of the durations between and of events, (B) the durations of objects at specific spacepoints, (C) the determination of the simultaneity of events, and (D) the arrow of time and its direction, which is from the past through the present into the future.

——————————————

RQ/Rhetorical Question: Inre time, what do people want to know?

RA/Rhetorical Answer: Inre time, people want to know if events occurred before, during, or after other events. The observation of before, during, or after is the gross or simple description of when the events occurred relative to the other events. When people want to know what is the measurement of the occurrence of an event, they want to know by how much of a unit of measurement of time, a time-interval, an event occurred before or after another event, or if an event fits the same units of measurement of another event, the same timepoints, in which case the two events, fitting the units of measurement, the same timepoints, are occurring together, are simultaneous, then the measurement of time-intervals of events is the specific description, or specification, of when events occurred relative to other events.

Do we use a space-interval/length as a unit of measurement of space? Do we use a ruler to measure lengths, widths and heights? Is not that ruler a length used to measure lengths?

Do we use a time-interval/duration as as unit of measurement of time. Do we use a clock to measure time? Does a clock have a time-interval which generates its rate of ticking, its set of timepoints and its timeline? Is not a clock using a time-interval to measure time-intervals between events or in the durations of events?

Summary: Yes, we use space-intervals/lengths to measure space via rulers, and, similarly, we use time-intervals/durations to measure time via clocks.

Some physical phenomena change their identities or positions in space, and the changes of physical phenomena can be measured by time the temporal process.

Some physical phenomena endure by retaining their identities or/and positions in space, and the endurance of physical phenomena can be measured by the temporal process.

Note that inre temporal measurement, where events occur and endure less in time than objects, objects endure more in time than events, and time-intervals can be used to measure the durations between events and the durations of events and the durations of objects.