### Timepiece Timerates and Absolute Velocity (AV)

Bob Kroepel
Lakeside Studios
New Durham, NH USA 03855

Fact/Observation/Measurement: When a timepiece (clock, watch, etc.) is accelerated or decelerated inre the Earth's surface and returned, the timepiece's timerate (tick-rate, rate of ticking, RoT) changes as a result of accelerations/decelerations, but when returned to the Earth's surface, the timepiece's timerate reassumes its original timerate.

Q: Why does the timerate of a timepiece (a clock, watch, etc., which is used to measure time) which has been accelerated/decelerated from the Earth's surface reassume its original timerate when the timepiece is returned to the Earth's surface?
A: The timerate of a timepiece which has been accelerated/decelerated from the Earth's surface reassumes its original timerate when the timepiece is returned to the Earth's surface because there is a physical/causal relationship between the timepiece's timerate and the timepiece's absolute velocity (AV)!

Reasoning: Regardless of what is the absolute motion (AM) of the Earth inre the Universe, e.g. regardless of how many star systems, galaxies, black holes, etc., the Earth may rotate about inre its motion throughout the Universe, the Earth has a single specific AV which determines the specific timerate of a specific timepiece. If this fact were not true, then a returned timepiece which has not been damaged and is therefore functioning as designed might have a different timerate. One way to determine if or not a returned timepiece is functioning as designed just might be the observation/measurement of whether or not it has reassumed its original Earthbound timerate.

Time is the use of a chosen duration, which can be directly modeled after a naturally recurring or periodic motion, or abstracted from a naturally recurring or periodic motion, or or artificially created by a choice of gears for a mechanical clock or an oscillation or fluctuation counter for quartz and digital clocks, for a time-interval (TI) to be used as a unit of temporal measurement of the durations between the occurrences of multiple events, the durations of single events, and the durations (ages) of people and objects, and for the generation in timepieces (clocks, watches, etc. used for measuring time—temporal measurement) of their timerates, timepoints (marks on timelines), timelines (histories, temporal records, continuums of time), and timecounts (the accumulation of timepoints which generates the arrow of time from the past through the present into the future) necessary for the determination of the sequences of events, the simultaneities of events (when simultaneity is operationally defined as two or more events occurring at the same timepoint), the causalities of events (when causality is operationally defined as people, objects and events who/which are comprised of matter/energy—m/e—and who/which are causes cause as effects changes in pre-existing people, objects and events or new people, objects and events from pre-existing m/e in a causal sequence of 1. Cause(s)—2. Effect(s)), and the rates of changes of physical states of people, objects and events including inertial states (states of motion)), and for the coordination (synchronization) of events, inre single and multiple reference frames/bodies.

The essence of time is the TI.

If (P) a TI is variable, i.e. distortable, distorted by accelerations and decelerations which change its timepiece's inertial state, then (Q) the TI is a variable TI (VTI); if (P) the TI is invariable, i.e. non-distortable, not distorted by accelerations and decelerations which change its timepiece's inertial state, because its timepiece's timerate is adjusted to maintain a desired timerate, then (Q) the TI is an invariable TI (ITI).

If (P) a VTI is used to generate a timepiece's timerate, timepoints, timeline, and timecount, then (Q) that timepiece is a VTI clock (VTIC) whose TI, timerate, timepoints, timeline, and timecount will be distorted when forces cause the VTIC to accelerate or decelerate, and therefore the clock will become a distortable-clock or d-clock; if (P) an ITI is used to generate a timepiece's timerate, timepoints, timeline, and timecount, then (Q) that timepiece is an ITI clock (ITIC) whose TI, timerate, timepoints, timeline, and timecount will NOT be distorted when forces cause the ITIC to accelerate or decelerate, and therefore the clock will become a non-distortable-clock or nd-clock.

There are two basic designs which can be used to create ITICs, nd-clocks: (1) The Radio Clock Design, wherein a master clock sends radio signals to slave clocks to adjust the slave clocks' timerates to maintain a desired timerate; and (2) The Inertial Clock Design, wherein accelerometers and computers are designed to detect changes in a clock's inertial state and adjust the clock's timerate to maintain a desired timerate.

Inre radio clocks (radio ITICs), the master clock functions to cause the timerate of a slave clock to be "independent of the state of motion of [its] body of reference" [Einstein, Relativity, 1961 edition, p. 27], i.e. for the timerate of a slave clock to be independent of its inertial state, the inertial state of its reference body, which is whatever body is wherein the slave clock is at-rest, at a relative velocity (RV) of 0.00c, which reference body is also the slave clock's reference frame (RF).

Inre inertial clocks (inertial ITICs), the accelerometers and computers function to cause the inertial clocks' timerates to be "independent of the state of motion of the body of reference", i.e. for the timerate of an inertial clock to be 100% independent of the inertial state of whatever reference body upon which the inertial clock may be at-rest at RV = 0.00c. Moreover, an inertial clock is 100% independent of the state of motion of its initial reference body (the reference body upon which the inertial clock was designed and fabricated and from which it was deployed). Therefore, if there should be a change of the inertial state of the inertial clock's initial reference body, then that inertial state change will not affect the operation of the inertial clock because the inertial clock is 100% independent of the inertial or physical state of its inertial reference body. Similarly, if an inertial clock's inertial reference body should be destroyed, then that physical state change will not affect the operation of the inertial clock because the inertial clock is 100% independent of the inertial or physical state of its inertial reference body.

Radio clocks are realities. Radio clocks (radio ITICs, RITICs) are deployed in the timing systems of the standard clocks (the clock used for time standards, including the standard second) of the USNO (US Naval Observatory), standard clocks of the US NIST (US National Institute of Standards and Technology), and the standard clocks of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (French: Bureau internationale des poids et mesures—BIPM), and the US GPS navigation system, which uses the standard clocks of the USNO to regulate the GPS master clock which in turn regulates ground station radio clocks which regulate the GPS satellite slave radio clocks. Scientists can and do use the GPS timing signals as time-standards for scientific experiments because of the fact that the GPS timing signals are synched to the USNO standard clocks.

Inertial clocks are realities. Inertial clocks (inertial ITICs, IITICs) are deployed in the inertial navigation systems of US military aircraft, ground vehicles, ships, and submarines, and in civilian inertial navigation systems. US Military personnel refer to a military inertial clock navigation system as "the INS"—the inertial navigation system.

If (P) a VTIC is used to measure time, then, b/c the VTIC's TI, timerate, timepoints, timeline, and timecount will be varied, distorted, by accelerations and/or decelerations, (Q) the VTIC can only measure VTIC time (VTICT), which is the local time (LT) inre a single reference frame/body. The VTIC is thus a local time clock (LTC), or a distortable clock (d-clock).

If (P) an ITIC is used to measure time, then, because the ITIC's TI, timerate, timepoints, timeline, and timecount will NOT be varied, distorted, by accelerations and/or decelerations, but, instead will be unvaried, undistorted, invariable, by being adjustable, (Q) the ITIC can measure ITIC time (ITICT), which is the absolute time (AT) inre multiple reference frames/bodies. The ITIC is thus an absolute time clock (ATC), or a non-distortable clock (nd-clock) because it is an adjustable clock (a-clock).

To determine the durations between multiple events, the durations of single events, and the durations (ages) of people and objects inre a single reference frame/body, identical VTICs, LTCs and d-clocks can be used successfully by all observers who are in/on the reference frame/body. VTICs, LTCs and d-clocks can effectively provide the TI, timerate, timepoints, timeline, and timecount necessary for the determination of the local sequence of events, the local simultaneities of events, the local causalities of events, and the local rate changes inre the people, objects, and events inre a single reference frame/body.

To determine the durations between multiple events, the durations of single events, and the durations (ages) of people and objects inre multiple reference frames/bodies, identical ITICs, ATCs, nd-clocks, and a-clocks can be used successfully by all observers who are in/on the reference frames/bodies. ITICs, ATCs, nd-clocks, and a-clocks can effectively provide the TI, timerate, timepoints, timeline, and timecount necessary for the determination of the absolute sequence of events, the absolute simultaneities of events, the absolute causalities of events, and the absolute rate changes inre the people, objects, and events inre multiple reference frames/bodies.

When we return to the fact that the Earth has a specific AV inre the Universe and d-clocks (VTICs, LTCs) returned to the Earth' surface after accelerations and/or decelerations reassume their original (initial) timerates, and therefore, there is a causal relationship inre a d-clock's AV and its timerate, a fact confirmed by the 1971 Hafele-Keating cesium-atom clock experiment, we can use a d-clock's timerate to determine if or not the d-clock's AV = 0.00c, which would be the condition of being at absolute rest (AR).

If a spacecraft with an on-board d-clock is launched into space, and if spacecraft and d-clock could be essentially free of gravitational force field effects, then the d-clock's timerate is likely to be different from its Earthbound timerate.

Where (P) there is a causal relationship inre the Earthbound d-clock's timerate and the Earth's AV, then (Q) there ought to be a causal relationship inre the spaceborne d-clock's timerate and its spacecraft's AV.

That causal relationship inre a spaceborn d-clock's timerate and its spacecraft's AV means (A) if (P) the spacecraft's AV is decreased by decelerations, then (Q) the spaceborn d-clock's timerate should increase and (B) if (P) the spacecraft's AV is increased by accelerations, then (Q) the spaceborn d-clock's timerate should decrease.

If (P) the spacecraft should be decelerated into the condition of AV = 0.00c, and therefore the spacecraft is at AR, then (Q) the spaceborn d-clock's timerate should be at its maximum possible timerate.

It is not possible to decelerate a spacecraft (or any other entity) beyond AV = 0.00c and the condition of being at AR.

It is not possible for a d-clock's timerate to increase beyond the maximum timerate it would assume at AV = 0.00c at the condition of being at AR because it is not possible to decelerate a d-clock beyond AV = 0.00c and the condition of being at AR.

We now have justification for claiming as a fact the existence of the AV = 0.00c and the condition of being at AR.

Any and all entities which have (P) an AV = 0.00c also have RVs = 0.00c inre each other which means (Q) the entities are all in the same reference frame.

The condition of being at AV = 0.00c and at AR means a spacecraft, spaceborn d-clock, or any other entity is in the absolute rest reference frame (ARRF).

Any and all entities which have an AV = 0.00c and RVs = 0.00c and are at AR are in the ARRF.

If (P) it is not possible to decelerate any entity beyond AV = 0.00c at AR in the ARRF and a spacecraft and an onboard d-clock are at AV = 0.00c at AR in the ARRF, then (Q) any force applied to the spacecraft can only cause an acceleration, never a deceleration, of the spacecraft.

There will be a causal relationship between a d-clock's AV and its timerate.

In theory, an experiment can be conducted in which a spacecraft and d-clock are launched into space and are subjected to forces relevant to the firings of short bursts of the spacecraft's thruster and/or retro rocket motors which eventually cause decelerations to the spacecraft until the d-clock's timerate is observed by Earthbound observers to be at its maximum and therefore the spacecraft would be at AV = 0.00c at AR in the ARRF. Additional rocket motor firings would cause accelerations and observations of an increase in the spacecraft's AV and a decrease in the d-clock's timerate. Should there be an increase in the spacecraft's AV and a decrease in the d-clock's timerate, and should observers choose to return to AV = 0.00c at AR in the ARRF, then additional rocket motor firings in the opposite direction will cause the spacecraft to return to the condition of AV = 0.00c at AR in the ARRF as observed by the reassumption of the d-clock's maximum timerate.

If (P) onboard a spacecraft are both a d-clock and an nd-clock (ITIC, ATC, a-clock), then (Q) onboard human observers could determine when the spacecraft reached AV = 0.00c at AR in the ARRF.

Human observers are distortable observers (d-observers) whose observation rates (perception rates) decrease as a result of accelerations and increase as a result of decelerations.

The distortions of the observation rates of d-observers will, at least in theory, occur at the same distortion-rate (d-rate) as the timerate distortions of d-clocks.

If (P) the distortions of the observation rates of d-observers will, at least in theory, occur at the same distortion-rate (d-rate) as the timerate distortions of d-clocks, then (Q) the d-observers will observe no change in, no distortions of, the timerates of d-clocks.

The distortions of the observation rates of d-observers will, at least in theory, cause d-observers to observe changes in, distortions of, the timerates of nd-clocks.

If (P) a spacecraft with d-observers, d-clocks, and nd-clocks is accelerated, then (Q) the d-observers will observe no change in, no distortion of, the timerate and timecount of the d-clocks while simultaneously they will observe changes in, distortions of, the timerates of the nd-clocks, which will result in increases in the nd-clock's timerates and timecounts relative to the d-clocks' timerates and timecounts; if (P) a spacecraft with d-observers, d-clocks, and nd-clocks is decelerated, then (Q) the d-observers will observe no change in, no distortion of, the timerate and timecount of the d-clocks while simultaneously they will observe changes in, distortions of, the timerates of the nd-clocks, which will result in decreases in the nd-clock's timerates and timecounts relative to the d-clocks' timerates and timecounts.

Therefore, by their observations of the timerates and timecounts inre the d-clocks and nd-clocks onboard their accelerated/decelerated spacecraft, d-observers can determine if or not their spacecraft has achieved AV = 0.00c at AR in the ARRF.

There is a causal relationship inre the timerates of d-clocks and their AVs. We would know what is the timerate of a d-clock at the Earth's surface and therefore at the Earth's AV, and we could learn what is the timerate of an identical d-clock at AV = 0.00c at AR in the ARRF, and for different AVs we could, at least in theory, learn what are the timerates of identical d-clocks at different AVs between AV = 0.00c and the Earth's AV, so we could begin to develop a Cosmic Speedometer which would have an initial range of AV = 0.00c to the Earth's AV.

We would know that, at least in theory, the maximum AV of any entity comprised of m/e is 1.00c (the speed of light in a vacuum, i.e. in a subvolume of space devoid of m/e)

At least in theory, at AV = 1.00c, a d-clock's timerate would be its minimum, if not zero.

We can thereby expand the Cosmic Speedometer's range from AV = 0.00c at maximum d-clock timerate to AV = 1.00c at d-clock minimum timerate.

We need not be capable of traveling up to or at AV = 1.00c, or even close, to be able to use the Cosmic Speedometer to determine the AVs of our spacecraft, because all we would need are the AVs from AV = 0.00c, which we can achieve, to at least the Earth's AV, which we also know we can achieve, to other AVs inre other reference bodies to which we can accelerate ourselves.

With the Cosmic Speedometer now available, if you and I, as d-observers, are traveling only in relationship to each other, in a vacuum, a subvolume of space devoid of any other m/e, including stars, planets, etc., which would be a coincidental/non-causal relationship, we could use identical d-clocks and identical nd-clocks to determine which of us is at AV = 0.00c and which is at an AV > 0.00c.

You would report to me your observation of your nd-clock's timerate and I would report to you my observation of my nd-clock's timerate. We would then consult a Cosmic Speedometer Table which lists the known AVs and timerates. We both would agree what is your AV from your timerate and what is my AV from my timerate.

Because I am a d-observer, you do not need me to try to observe the timerates of your d-clocks or nd-clocks because my observations will be different from yours, and because you are also a d-observer, I do not need you to try to observe the timerates of my d-clocks and nd-clocks because your observations will be different from mine.

By this process we eliminate relativistic time-dilation confusions inre our two reference frames/bodies (spacecraft) and we deal with pure local time, you inre yours inre your spacecraft, me inre mine inre my spacecraft, and we deal with pure absolute time, AT, the ITICT, ATC time, nd-clock time inherent in, and therefore common to, our identical ITICs, ATCs, nd-clocks, a-clocks.