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New Durham, NH USA 03855
Speculations 3: The Operational
Physics (OpPhys) Theory of Time, distortable v
non-distortable/adjustable rulers and clocks, the text-only
illustrations (Figs 1 and 2) of the Theory of the Spacegrid using only
those characters available on a typical computer keyboard, the relative
velocity (RV), measured velocity (MV), The Law of Physical States and
The Corollaries of the Law of Physical States (earlier versions), The
The theory of time reveals there is a difference between the
operations/measurements of distortable and non-distortable/adjustable
rulers and there is a difference between the operations/measurements of
distortable and non-distortable/adjustable clocks.
The theory of time reveals howitiz that distances (space) and durations
(time) do not change/are not caused to change by measurements/the
A relative velocity (RV) is the velocity difference between the
measured velocity (MV) of one entity (MVi) and the measured velocity of
another entity (MVii).
A measured velocity (MV) is the velocity of an entity measured in
relation to a standard reference by which the measured velocities (MVs)
of other entities are also measured.
A standard reference is a location in space or a location on an entity
such as a planet.
The determination of an RV is given by an RV equation.
Newton's RV Equation: RV = MVi ± MVii
Einstein's RV Equation: RV = (MVi + MVii)/(1 + MVi x MVii/c2)
Einstein's RV equation is 'rigged' so the RV inre light in any form
inre an entity including other forms of light is always 1.00c to
conform to the special relativity principle that stipulates that the
speed of light is the same for all observers.
RF2|> Lightray (MV2 = 1.00c)
RF1|> Spaceship (MV1 = 0.86c)
RF0|——————————| Spacegrid (MV0 = 0.00c)
Fig. 1. T1.
At T1 (Timepoint 1—a mark on a continuum of time or timeline), Lightray
is in-motion at MV2 = 1.00c (c = the speed of light in vacuo) inre Fig. 1, Spaceship is
in-motion at MV1 = 0.86c, and Spacegrid is a reference frame which is
at-rest at MV0 = 0.00c; at T1, Lightray and Spaceship are abreast of
each other at the leftmost Spacepoint (|) of the Spacegrid. Moreover,
the motions of Lightray and Spacship are independent of each, i.e.
there is no causal connection/relationships inre Lightray and
Spaceship, therefore both are travelin in vacuo.
RF2|——————————> Lightray (MV2 = 1.00c)
RF1|————————-> Spaceship (MV1 = 0.86c)
RF0|——————————| Spacegrid (MV0 = 0.00c)
Fig. 2. T2.
At T2 inre Fig. 2, Lightray has traveled 10 space-units
(distance-units, space-intervals, such as feet, yards, miles, etc.) in
10 time-units (duration-units, time-intervals, such as seconds,
minutes, hours, etc.) to the rightmost Spacegrid Spacepoint (|),
Spaceship has traveled 8.6 space-units in 10 time-units towards the
rightmost Spacegrid Spacepoint, and Spacegrid has not traveled
The entities Lightray and Spaceship are independent of each
other and therefore there are no causal relationships among them which
could cause Lightray to travel past Spaceship at an RV = 1.00c and
thereby cause Einstein's RV equation to be valid and therefore the
Eiinstein's RV euation is invalid and the correct
RV expression for the RV inre Lightray and Spaceship is RV = MVi
RV = MVi ± MVii = MV2 - MV1 = 1.00c - 0.86c = 0.14c.
This RV = 0.14c is clearly shown in Figs 1-2.
RV = (MVi + MVii)/(1 + MVi x MVii/c2)
RV = (MV1 + MV2)/(1 + MV1 x MV2/c2)
RV = (0.86c + 1.00c)/(1 + 1.00c x 0.86c/c2)
RV = (159,960 + 186,000)/(1 + 159,960 x 186,000/(186,000 x 186,000)
RV = (345,960)/(1 + 29,752,560,000/34,596,000,000)
RV = 345,960/(1 + 0.86)
RV = 345,960/1.86
RV = 186,000 = 1.00c
This RV = 1.00c is NOT clearly shown in Figs 1-2.
Lightray, in Figs 1-2, clearly does NOT travel past Spaceship at RV =
These Figs illustrate the reality inre the velocities of entities which
are independent of each other.
These Figs also illustrate the conditions Einstein needed to prove his
theory of the non-simultaneity/relativity of events using his railway
These Figs plus my theory of time reveal that any measurements using
interferometers which produce experimental results that the speed of
light is always 1.00c regardless of the motion of the interferometers
are caused by distortable rulers, clocks and observers, and thereby are
The Law of Physical States and The
Corollaries of the Law of Physical States
The Law of Physical States: The
physical state of an entity will remain unchanged until acted upon by a
force of some kind—a form of matter/energy (m/e).
The Corollaries of the Law of Physical
1. A force is a form of m/e.
2. A force produces a push away from or a pull towards the force
source; thus a force is either a push-force or a pull-force.
3. Only a force can change a physical state.
4. The observation of a change of physical state implies the change is
an effect caused by a cause which is a force of some kind—a push-force
or a pull-force which is a form of m/e.
The Extrapolation Theory
The Extrapolation Principle: Causal relationships (cause-and-effect
relationships) observed at one scalar level and/or in one reference
frame are assumed to occur at all scalar levels and/or in all reference
frames until exceptions are observed.