Phundamental Physics (Fundamental Fysics)

Light, a form of matter and energy (m/e), has motion.

All motion is relative.

If all motion is relative, to what is the motion of light relative?

The motion of light is relative to the spacepoints at which lightpulses (photons, lightrays, lightwaves, etc.) were emitted from their lightsources.

The motion of a lightsource does not affect the motion—the velocity (speed)—of a lightpulse.

Whereas in physics velocity consists of speed + direction, the motion of a lightsource may affect the direction of a lightpulse but not the speed of the lightpulse.

All lightpulses have the same absolute velocity (AV) of 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoints at which they were emitted from their lightsources.

All lightpulses moving parallel to each other and in the same direction are in the same reference frame.

In physics, a reference frame is a system of coordinates within or from which observations and measurements of physical phenomena can be made, within which physical phenomena follow the same laws, and within which objects comprised of m/e are at rest relative to each other but have the same velocity relative to objects in other reference frames.

The spacepoints at which lightpulses are emitted from their lightsources are all in the same reference frame because they are at rest relative to each other because they have the same velocity relative to the lightpulses emitted from them.

The motion of a lightpulse is therefore an AV = 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoint at which it was emitted from its lightsource and to all objects which are at rest relative to that spacepoint and therefore are in the same reference frame.

The motion of a lightpulse is the fastest velocity for any object comprised of m/e.

If the motion of a lightpulse is an AV = 186,000 mps which is the limiting velocity—the fastest absolute motion (AM)—for objects comprised of m/e and which are in the absolute motion reference frame (AMRF), then, logically, there should be a condition which is AV = 0 mps at absolute rest (AR) in the absolute rest reference frame (ARRF), and that condition is met by the locations of the spacepoints at which lightpulses are emitted from their lightsources, locations which are at-rest relative to the lightpulses which are in-motion.

There is, therefore, a Cosmic Speedometer which has a range from AV/AM = 0 mps wherein objects at AV/AM = 0 mps are at AR in the ARRF to AV/AM = 186,000 mps wherein objects (photons) at AV/AM = 186,000 mps are in the AMRF.

The Cosmic Speedometer

 AV = 0 mps — AV = 186,000 mps AR/ARRF — AM/AMRF

Motions of any kind are absolute velocities, measured velocities, and/or relative velocities.

An absolute velocity (AV) is a velocity relative to spacepoints or objects which have a known and invariable absolute motion (AM).

A relative velocity (RV) is a velocity of an object comprised of m/e in reference to another object (or objects) also comprised of m/e.

An absolute velocity and a relative velocity are the same when measured relative to the same object. A lightpulse’s AV = its RV relative to the spacepoint at which the lightpulse is emitted from its lightsource.

A measured velocity (MV) of a object comprised of m/e is a velocity value measured in reference to a spacepoint or an object; the concept of the MV is used to measure the relative velocities (RVs) of objects whose AMs are different—for objects comprised of m/e to have relative velocities (RVs) they must have MVs measured relative to the same spacepoint(s), object, or event.

The AV of a lightpulse is an AV and an RV and an MV in reference to and therefore relative to the spacepoint at which it was emitted from its lightsource.

When the motion of light is measured relative to an object which is comprised of m/e and which is in-motion at an AV > 0 mps then the motion is a relative motion (RM) and the velocity is a relative velocity (RV) and a measured velocity (MV).

A lightpulse has an AV = 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoint at which it was emitted from its lightsource.

An object which is comprised of m/e and which is in-motion at an AV > 0 mps has a relative velocity (RV) relative to any object which has an AV ≥ 0 mps.

Objects and entities comprised of m/e including lightpulses (photons) which have identical AVs or RVs or MVs and are moving in the same direction of motion (and thereby have identical velocities) are in the same reference frame.

Space, Time and Simultaneity in Physics

Space in physics can be defined as the one-and-only volume of infinite size (the infinite volume or i-volume) which has no surface and therefore no shape (or no shape because it has no surface) and which is a pure vacuum except for subvolumes in which matter and energy (m/e) is present (a subvolume of space devoid of m/e would be a pure vacuum).

The i-volume will surround each and every and any and all finite volumes (f-volumes).

If (A) all m/e can be quantized, and if (B) each quantum has a finite volume and therefore a finite surface and therefore a finite shape, and if (C) each quantum is NOT 100% contiguous (touching/touched by/in contact with) other quanta, then there is space between/among quanta and this space has to be and therefore is devoid of m/e and thus and therefore this space has to be and therefore is a pure vacuum.

If a point on a surface is required to be a material point, a point which has a physical dimension, a point which has a radius—a dimensioned point, like the pebbles on a basketball, in contrast with a non-dimensioned point, then the finite surface of a finite volume will be covered with a finite number of material points (dimensioned points). If a traveler on a finite surface covered with dimensioned points can travel a dimensioned point only once, then he/she/it can travel over that finite surface via a finite number of pathways—he/she/it cannot travel over that finite surface via an infinite number of pathways.

Space therefore cannot be a finite but unbounded volume, and therefore the universe is not finite and unbounded; instead, space is infinite in volume and unbounded and therefore the universe is infinite and unbounded.

Time in physics can be defined to be the combination of (I) the temporal principle wherein the physical duration of a recurring or periodic motion or cycle can be chosen to be a time-interval for the unit of temporal measurement of the durations between the occurrences of events inre (in regards or in regards to) single or multiple reference frames/bodies, of the durations of single events, and of the durations (ages) of people and objects, and for the generation in timepieces (clocks, watches, etc.) of their timerates (clock rates, rates of ticking), their timepoints (points of time, instants), timelines (histories, temporal continuums, records of links between timepoints and the configurations of people, objects and events who/which are comprised of matter and energy (m/e)), and timecounts (always accumulative via addition wherein the direction of time is always from the past through the present into the future) which are necessary for the determination of the sequences of events, the causation of events, and the simultaneity of events, and for the coordination (synchronization) of events inre single and multiple reference frames/bodies and (II) the temporal process (the temporal measurement process) by which a time-interval is incorporated into the design, fabrication and deployment of actual timepieces and temporal measurement is conducted.

The essence of time is the time-interval—the chosen duration which when incorporated into the design, fabrication and deployment of timepieces generates the timerate, timepoints, timelines, and timecounts necessary for the temporal process.

Simultaneity in physics is defined as two or more events occurring at the same timepoint. Thus, to determine the simultaneity of two or more events, timepoints are necessary, the timepoints must be identical, located  along identical timelines and the time-intervals between them must be identical, therefore identical timepieces which have identical time-intervals, timerates, timepoints, timelines, and timecounts are necessary, and the timepieces must be placed close enough to events so effective time values can be determined so cameras co-located with the timepieces can take time-stamped photographs of the events which can then confirm or disconfirm the simultaneity of the events.

The Perfect Observer

The Perfect Observer (PO) is an imaginary observer who perceives the positions and motions of people, objects and events who/which are comprised of matter and energy (m/e) by a perceptual sense not known to human observers (HOs); this perceptual sense enables the PO to perceive instantly the positions and motions of each and every and any and all people, objects and events comprised of m/e including molecules, atoms, subatomic particles, and elementary particles without disturbing those people, objects and events. The PO also is able to travel instantly (change motions and positions instantly). The PO uses non-distortable rulers to measure absolute space (distance) and non-distortable clocks to measure absolute time (duration)

The universal matter and energy system (m/e system) at any timepoint has a configuration or arrangment which consists of the positions of the people, objects and events who/which are comprised of m/e at that timepoint. A timeline or history is a record of the m/e configuration at each timepoint on the timeline.

The Orbiting Stars Diagrams are graphs which represent Space, Time and the Speed of Light as perceived by the Perfect Observer. The Diagrams eliminate time delay problems which are relevant to the observation of the motions of lightpulses in space over time.

The Speed of Light (SOL)

The speed of light in vacuo (in a vacuum, in a subvolume of space which is devoid of any form of m/e which could cause accelerations or decelerations of objects which are comprised of m/e including light photons—lightpulses) has been measured to be c—a measured velocity (MV) of approximately 186,000 mps.

The Orbiting Stars 0ax-0f Diagrams

De Sitter has determined that the speed of light is not affected by the motion (speed) of the light source which emits a light pulse. De Sitter observed that the travel time to an observer required for a light pulse emitted from a star (S1) orbiting counterclockwise about a massive star away from the observer is identical to the travel time to the same observer required for a light pulse emitted from another star (S2) orbiting counterclockwise about the same massive star and in the same plane towards that observer.

Orbiting Stars 0a

The Orbiting Stars 0a ("Zero A") Diagram can be modified to slant the graphlines for comparing their motions relative to the Observer.

Orbiting Stars 0ax

The fact that when Lightrays A and B are emitted simultaneously towards Observer the same amount of time (the same temporal duration) is required for Lightray A from S1 to strike Observer as the amount of time required for Lightray B from S2 to strike Observer proves that the speed of light is independent of the state of motion of the light source.

Orbiting Stars 0b

The Orbiting Stars 0b ("Zero B") Diagram can be modified to slant the graphlines for comparing their motions relative to the Observer.

Orbiting Stars 0bx

The Orbiting Stars 0a and 0b Diagrams can be adapted so the light pulses are emitted parallel to each other and aimed at a massive Target aligned in the plane of the motions of Lightrays A and B perpendicularly to the motions of Lightrays A and B.

Orbiting Stars 0c

When Lightrays A and B are emitted simultaneously from S1 and S2 they travel parallel to each other and perpendicular to Target and will strike Target simultaneously if one or the other is not accelerated or decelerated or otherwise caused to change its course, inertial state, or velocity.

Orbiting Stars 0d

Because the motions (velocities) of lightsources do not affect the motions (velocities) of lightrays (light photons, lightpulses, etc.) the spacepoints at which lightrays are emitted are essentially at-rest at AV = 0 mps and the Lightrays have an AV = RV = MV = 186,000 mps relative to their emission spacepoints.

If the Orbiting Star Sytem were to move relative to S0, then the spacepoints at which Lightrays A and B were emitted would nevertheless remain in the same location/position in space, e.g. they would not have moved, and therefore they would have an AV= 0 mps.

In the OrbitingStars 0e Diagram, the Orbiting Star System has moved relative to the spacepoints at which Lightrays A and B were emitted on S0; the emission spacepoints have not moved and therefore have an AV = 0 mps and the Lightrays have an AV = RV = MV = 186,000 mps relative to their emission spacepoints.

Orbiting Stars 0e

In the OrbitingStars 0f Diagram, the Orbiting Star System has disappeared while the spacepoints at which Lightrays A and B were emitted on S0 have not moved and have an AV = 0 mps and the Lightrays have an AV = RV = MV = 186,000 mps relative to their emission spacepoints.

Orbiting Stars 0f

The Concept of the Reference Frame

In physics, a reference frame is a coordinate system within which and from which observations and measurements of physical phenomena can be made, within which the laws of physics (the natural causal relationships among the objects and events which are comprised of matter and energy—m/e) are the same, and within which all objects which have identical velocities (speeds and directions) are at-rest relative to each other, e.g. the objects within a reference frame have the same relative velocity (RV) and the RV = 0 mps.

If the spacepoints at which lightrays were emitted were not on the same gridline, but, nevertheless, all lightrays were moving at AV = RV = MV = 186,000 mps relative to their emission spacepoints and all were in-motion moving in the same direction of motion, then the Lightrays would have RVs = 0 mps relative to each other and their emission spacepoints would have RVs = 0 mps relative to each other.

In the Orbiting Stars Diagram 0g, the Orbiting Star System has disappeared, Lightrays A, B, C, and D were emitted from their lightsources on their respective gridlines at AV = RV = MV = 186,000 mps relative to their emission spacepoints, and because Lightrays A, B, C, and D have identical AVs = MVs = 186,000 mps and are moving in the same direction of motion relative to each other, then they have the same RV which is RV = 0 mps, and therefore they are in the same reference frame, the light reference frame (LRF), and because the emission spacepoints have identical AVs = RVs = 0 mps relative to each other, then they are at absolute rest (AR) in the absolute rest reference frame (ARRF).

Orbiting Stars 0g

The Orbiting Stars Diagrams reveal that...

1. the motion of a lightsource does NOT affect the motion of light emitted from the lightsource;
2. the motion of light is an AV = c or 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoint at which light was emitted.

These twin facts (observations/measurements) inre the motion of light (twin light motion facts—TLMFs)—(1) the motion of a lightsource does NOT affect the motion of light and (2) light travels at an AV = c or 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoint at which it was emitted—are fundamental to the objective truth/objective reality inre the motion of light.

The twin light motion facts cannot be refuted. If there should be experiments which appear to refute the twin light motion facts then those experiments are automatically invalid—thus the appearance of experimental results which are the refutation of the twin light motion facts is a sign/symptom of a problem with an experiment and therefore reason to reject its results.

The Orbiting Stars Diagrams illustrate ...

1. the fact that the motion (velocity) of a lightsource does not affect the motion of light,
2. the fact that light has an absolute motion (AM) which is the absolute velocity (AV) of 186, 000 mps, i.e. AV = 186,000 mps, or AV = c, relative to the spacepoint at which light is emitted from its lightsource—the light emission spacepoint (LES),
3. the fact that the light emission spacepoints (LESs) have no motion and are therefore at-rest at absolute rest (AR) which is AV = 0 mps and have have a relative velocity (RV) which is 0 mps (RV = 0 mps) inre (relative to) each other and are therefore in the same reference frame, the light emission spacepoint reference frame (LESRF) which is also the absolute rest reference frame (ARRF),
4. the fact that all lightrays moving at AV = 186,000 mps in the same direction of motion have the same RV and that RV = 0 mps, and therefore all lightrays are in the same reference frame, the light reference frame (LRF), which is alo the reference frame in which objects can have their maximum AV = c, which is their absolute motion (AM), and therefore the LRF is also the absolute motion reference frame (AMRF).
5. the facts that (A) the LESs are at AR at AV = 0 mps in the LESRF/ARRF and (B) lightrays are AM at AV = 0 mps in the LRF/AMRF combine to prove there is a Cosmic Speedometer with a range from AR @ AV = 0 mps in the LESRF/ARRF to AM @ AV = c (186,000 mps) inthe LRF/AMRF.

If all motion is relative, then the absolute motion (AM) of light, i.e. the AV of light, is relative to the spacepoints and objects within the LESRF/ARRF and therefore the AM/AV of light is relative to the LESRF/ARRF.

With the minimum AV = 0 mps and the maximum AV = 186,000 mps, then there is a Cosmic Speedometer which has a range from AR @ AV = 0 mps to AM @ AV = 186,000 mps.

The Cosmic Speedometer

 AV = 0 mps — AV = 186,000 mps AR/ARRF — AM/AMRF

The Orbiting Stars 2T0x-2T10 Diagrams

If when OS1 emits Lightray A OS2 emits Lightray B and Spaceship passes OS2 traveling at .86c or 159,960 mps relative to the spacepoint at which Lightray B was emitted and relative to Target, then Lightrays A and B will travel at AV = c or 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoints at which they were emitted and at AV = c relative to Target but will travel past Spaceship at RV > c or 186,000 mps - 159,960 mps or 26,040 mps.

Orbiting Stars 2T0x—Timepoint 0

Orbiting Stars 2T1—Timepoint 1

Orbiting Stars 2T2—Timepoint 2

Orbiting Stars 2T3—Timepoint 3

Orbiting Stars 2T4—Timepoint 4

Orbiting Stars 2T5—Timepoint 5

Orbiting Stars 2T6—Timepoint 6

Orbiting Stars 2T7—Timepoint 7

Orbiting Stars 2T8—Timepoint 8

Orbiting Stars 2T9—Timepoint 9

Orbiting Stars 2T10—Timepoint 10

Summary Graph Orbiting Stars 2 T0-T6

MOVIE: Orbiting Stars 2 Movie

At Timepoint 10, Lightrays A and B strike Target simultaneously—at the same Timepoint.

The fact that Lightrays A and B were traveling at AV = 186,000 mps and struck Target simultaneously proves that they were neither accelerated nor decelerated and that they traveled past Spaceship at RV < 186,000 mps e.g. Lightrays A and B traveled past Spaceship at an RV = 26,040 mps or .14c (186,000 mps - 159,940 mps = 26,040 mps or 14% of c).

This fact proves that Lightrays A and B traveling parallel to and in the same direction of motion as a Spaceship traveling at AV = .86c or 159,960 mps (86% of c) could not travel past the Spaceship at an RV = 186,000 mps but instead have to travel past the Spaceship at an RV = 26,040 mps or .14c (186,000 mps - 159,940 mps = 26,040 mps or 14% of c).

The Orbiting Stars 3T0-3T10 Diagrams

In the Orbiting Stars Diagrams 3T0-3T10, Spaceship is moving at AV = .86c left-to-right away from Target towards the Orbiting Stars; Lightrays A and B are moving at AV = 186,000 mps.

Orbiting Stars 3T0—Timepoint 0

Orbiting Stars 3T1—Timepoint 1

Orbiting Stars 3T2—Timepoint 2

Orbiting Stars 3T3—Timepoint 3

Orbiting Stars 3T4—Timepoint 4

Orbiting Stars 3T5—Timepoint 5

Orbiting Stars 3T6—Timepoint 6

Orbiting Stars 3T7—Timepoint 7

Orbiting Stars 3T8—Timepoint 8

Orbiting Stars 3T9—Timepoint 9

Orbiting Stars 3T10—Timepoint 10

Summary Graph Orbiting Stars 3 T0-T10

MOVIE: Orbiting Stars 3 iMovie

The RV inre the motion of Lightray B and Spaceship is 1.86c or 345,960 mps (186,000 + 159,960 mps).

An RV (relative velocity) can be RV < c down to but not less than 0 mps or RV > c up to but not more than 2c (372,000 mps). Neither Lightray B nor Spaceship exceed c or 186,000 mps inre RV = 345,960 mps.

The Orbiting Stars 3T0-3T10 Diagrams prove that it is not possible for a Lightray traveling at AV = 186,000 mps and a Spaceship traveling at AV = 159,960 mps moving parallel to each other but in opposite directions to pass each other at RV = c or 186,000 mps.

The Orbiting Stars 4T0-4T10 Diagrams

In the Orbiting Stars Diagrams 4T0-4T10, Spaceship is moving at AV = .86c right-to-left away from Target towards the Orbiting Stars; Lightrays A and B are moving at AV = 186,000 mps.

Orbiting Stars 4T0—Timepoint 0

Orbiting Stars 4T1—Timepoint 1

Orbiting Stars 4T2—Timepoint 2

Orbiting Stars 4T3—Timepoint 3

Orbiting Stars 4T4—Timepoint 4

Orbiting Stars 4T5—Timepoint 5

Orbiting Stars 4T6—Timepoint 6

Orbiting Stars 4T7—Timepoint 7

Orbiting Stars 4T8—Timepoint 8

Orbiting Stars 4T9—Timepoint 9

Orbiting Stars 4T10—Timepoint 10

Summary Graph Orbiting Stars 4 T0-T10

MOVIE: Orbiting Stars 4 iMovie

The RV inre the motion of Lightray B and Spaceship is 1.86c or 345,960 mps (186,000 + 159,960 mps).

An RV (relative velocity) can be RV < c down to but not less than 0 mps or RV > c up to but not more than 2c (372,000 mps). Neither Lightray B nor Spaceship exceed c or 186,000 mps inre RV = 345,960 mps.

The Orbiting Stars 4T0-4T10 Diagrams prove that it is not possible for a Lightray traveling at AV = 186,000 mps and a Spaceship traveling at AV = 159,960 mps moving parallel to each other but in opposite directions to pass each other at RV = c or 186,000 mps.

The Orbiting Stars 5T0-5T6 Diagrams

If when Lightsource S1 emits Lightray A Lightsource S2 emits Lightray B and Spaceship passes S2 traveling at .86c or 159,960 mps relative to the spacepoint at which Lightray B was emitted and relative to Target, then Lightrays A and B will travel at AV = c or 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoints at which they were emitted and at AV = c relative to Target but will travel past Spaceship at RV < c or RV < 186,000 mps, e.g. 159,960 mps or 26,040 mps.

If Lightray C is emitted from a Lightsource within Spaceship and Lightray C travels at c or 186,000 mps relative to the Lightsource within Spaceship and the spacepoint within Spaceship from which it was emitted, then Lightray C will travel past Lightrays A and B and therefore Lightray C will strike Target ahead of/before Lightrays A and B.

At T0, Spaceship is traveling at .86c or 159,960 mps, Lightrays A and B are emitted simultaneously, and have AVs = RVs = 186,000 mps relative to their emission spacepoints, Lightray C is emitted from a Lightsource within Spaceship simultaneously with Lightrays A and B (Lightrays A, B and C are emitted simultaneously from their Lightsources when the Lightsources are aligned with S0), and Lightray C has an AV = 186,000 mps relative to its emission spacepoint within Spaceship (Lightray C’s emission spacepoint is moving at AV = RV = 0 mps relative to Spaceship but at RV = 26,040 mps relative to the emission spacepoints of Lightrays A and B).

Orbiting Stars 5T0—Timepoint 0

Orbiting Stars 5T1—Timepoint 1

Orbiting Stars 5T2—Timepoint 2

Orbiting Stars 5T3—Timepoint 3

Orbiting Stars 5T4—Timepoint 4

Orbiting Stars 5T5—Timepoint 5

Orbiting Stars 5T6—Timepoint 6

Summary Graph Orbiting Stars 5 T0-T6

MOVIE: Orbiting Stars 5 iMovie

At T6, Lightray C has struck and traveled past Target ahead of Lightrays A and B.

At least in theory, all lightrays (lightpulses) travel as the same AV = c or 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoints at which the lightrays were emitted from their lightsources because the motions of their lightsources do not affect the motions of the lightrays.

Therefore, the motion of Lightray C cannot be and therefore is not affected by the motion of the Lightsource within Spaceship (the motion of Lightray C is not affected by the motion of Spaceship which carries Lightray C’s Lightsource).

Therefore, Lightray C can only travel in such a way as to keep up with but not move ahead or behind Lightrays A and B.

If there were to be a physical phenomenon which is a force—a form of m/e—which decelerates a lightray (a force cannot accelerate a lightray), then the decelerated lightray will travel behind other lightrays which were not decelerated.

The Orbiting Stars 6T0x-6T10 Diagrams

If in theory, all lightrays (lightpulses) travel as the same AV = c or 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoints at which the lightrays were emitted from their lightsources because the motions of their lightsources do not affect the motions of the lightrays and the motion of a Lightray C cannot be and therefore is not affected by the motion of the Lightsource within Spaceship (the motion of Lightray C is not affected by the motion of Spaceship which carries Lightray C’s Lightsource).

Therefore, Lightray C can only travel in such a way as to keep up with but not move ahead or behind Lightrays A and B.

If when Lightsource S1 emits Lightray A Lightsource S2 emits Lightray B and Spaceship passes S2 traveling at .86c or 159,960 mps relative to the spacepoint at which Lightray B was emitted and relative to Target, then Lightrays A and B will travel at AV = c or 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoints at which they were emitted and at AV = c relative to Target but will travel past Spaceship at RV > c or RV < 186,000 mps, e.g. 159,960 mps or 26,040 mps.

If Lightray C is emitted from a Lightsource within Spaceship and Lightray C travels at c or 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoint from which it was emitted, then Lightray C will travel alongside Lightrays A and B and therefore Lightray C will strike Target simultaneously with Lightrays A and B.

At T0, Spaceship is traveling at .86c or 159,960 mps, Lightray A is emitted from S1 while Lightray B is emitted from S2 simultaneously with Lightray A and Lightray C is emitted from a Lightsource within Spaceship simultaneously with Lightrays A and B (Lightrays A, B and C are emitted simultaneously from their Lightsources when the Lightsources are aligned with S0).

Orbiting Stars 6T0—Timepoint 0

Orbiting Stars 6T1—Timepoint 1

Orbiting Stars 6T2—Timepoint 2

Orbiting Stars 6T3—Timepoint 3

Orbiting Stars 6T4—Timepoint 4

Orbiting Stars 6T5—Timepoint 5

Orbiting Stars 6T6—Timepoint 6

Orbiting Stars 6T7—Timepoint 7

Orbiting Stars 6T8—Timepoint 8

Orbiting Stars 6T9—Timepoint 9

Orbiting Stars 6T10—Timepoint 10

Summary Graph Orbiting Stars 6 T0-T6

MOVIE: Orbiting Stars 6 iMovie

At T10, Lightrays A, B and C have struck Target simultaneously in accord with the twin light motion facts (TLMFs)—that (1) the motion of a lightsource does NOT affect the motion of light and (2) light travels at an AV = c or 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoint at which it was emitted.

The fact that at T10 Lightrays A, B and C have struck Target simultaneously proves that the twin light motion facts (TLMFs)—that (1) the motion of a lightsource does NOT affect the motion of light and (2) light travels at an AV = c or 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoint at which it was emitted—are correct.

The Orbiting Stars Diagrams: Summary

From this ...

Orbiting Stars 5T0 or 6T0—Timepoint 0

... at T6 (Timepoint 6) there is either this ...

Orbiting Stars 5T6—Timepoint 6

... or this ...

Orbiting Stars 6T6—Timepoint 6

... but not both.

Q: Why not both?
A: Because either a lightpulse (A) travels at AV = c or 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoint at which it was emitted from a lightsource or it (B) travels at AV= c or 186,000 mps relative to the lightsource from which it was emitted regardless of the spacepoint at which it was emitted.

The Twin Light Motion Facts

The Orbiting Stars Diagrams reveal that...

1. the motion of a lightsource does NOT affect the motion of light emitted from the lightsource;
2. the motion of light is an AV = c or 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoint at which light was emitted.

These twin facts (observations/measurements) inre the motion of light (twin light motion facts—TLMFs)—(1) the motion of a lightsource does NOT affect the motion of light and (2) light travels at an AV = c or 186,000 mps relative to the spacepoint at which it was emitted—are fundamental to the objective truth/objective reality inre the motion of light.

The twin light motion facts cannot be refuted. If there should be experiments which appear to refute the twin light motion facts then those experiments are automatically invalid—thus the appearance of experimental results which are the refutation of the twin light motion facts is a sign/symptom of a problem with an experiment and therefore reason to reject its results.

The Physical Facts Revealed by the Orbiting Stars Diagrams

The Orbiting Stars Diagrams illustrate ...

1. the fact that the motion (velocity) of a lightsource does not affect the motion of light,
2. the fact that light has an absolute motion (AM) which is the absolute velocity (AV) of 186, 000 mps, i.e. AV = 186,000 mps, or AV = c, relative to the spacepoint at which light is emitted from its lightsource—the light emission spacepoint (LES),
3. the fact that the light emission spacepoints (LESs) have no motion and are therefore at-rest at absolute rest (AR) which is AV = 0 mps and have have a relative velocity (RV) which is 0 mps (RV = 0 mps) inre (relative to) each other and are therefore in the same reference frame, the light emission spacepoint reference frame (LESRF) which is also the absolute rest reference frame (ARRF),
4. the fact that all lightrays moving at AV = 186,000 mps in the same direction of motion have the same RV and that RV = 0 mps, and therefore all lightrays are in the same reference frame, the light reference frame (LRF), which is alo the reference frame in which objects can have their maximum AV = c, which is their absolute motion (AM), and therefore the LRF is also the absolute motion reference frame (AMRF).
5. the facts that (A) the LESs are at AR at AV = 0 mps in the LESRF/ARRF and (B) lightrays are AM at AV = 0 mps in the LRF/AMRF combine to prove there is a Cosmic Speedometer with a range from AR @ AV = 0 mps in the LESRF/ARRF to AM @ AV = c (186,000 mps) inthe LRF/AMRF.

If all motion is relative, then the absolute motion (AM) of light, i.e. the AV of light, is relative to the spacepoints and objects within the LESRF/ARRF and therefore the AM/AV of light is relative to the LESRF/ARRF.

With the minimum AV = 0 mps and the maximum AV = 186,000 mps, then there is a Cosmic Speedometer which has a range from AR @ AV = 0 mps to AM @ AV = 186,000 mps.

The Cosmic Speedometer

 AV = 0 mps — AV = 186,000 mps AR/ARRF — AM/AMRF