### If P, then Q Logical Arguments and Causality

Bob Kroepel
Lakeside Studios
New Durham, NH, USA

If P, Then Q logical arguments reveal howitiz that there are precise sets of Ps that cause specific Qs.

P = Variable representing condition(s) and cause(s).
Q = Variable representing consequence(s) and effect(s).

Example:

Premise #1: If P/Condition(s)/Cause(s), Then Q/Consequence(s)/Effect(s).
Premise #2: P/Condition(s)/Cause(s).
Conclusion: Q/Consequence(s)/Effect(s).

The Causality Sequence, or Sequence of Causality:

1. P/Condition(s)/Cause(s);
2. Q/Consequence(s)/Effect(s).

The If P, Then Q logical argument is a description and a prediction of the probability of a causality.

If (P) a precise set of Ps is observed to always cause a specific Q, then (Q) the prediction of the probability of that precise set of Ps always causing a specific Q is 100%.

One set of precise Ps will cause only one specific Q; if a Not-Q (nQ) is observed, then a P is missing, several Ps are missing, an additional P was present, several additional Ps were present, or a there was a combination of missing and additional Ps that comprised the precise Ps that caused the specific Not-Q.

Condition/Cause of a Not-Q (nQ):

1. A P is missing;
2. Several Ps are missing;
3. An additional P was present;
4. Several additional Ps were present
5. A combination of missing and additional Ps.

If (P) the precise Ps for a specific Q are not known, then (Q) a probability for a specific Q can be expressed in precentages less than 100%.

When (P) the precise Ps for a specific Q are known, then (Q) the probability of the specific Q occurring when the precise Ps are present is 100%.

If P, Then Q logical arguments are the heart of science.

Scientists strive to find the precise Ps which cause specific Qs.

The purpose of striving to find the precise Ps which cause specific Qs is to find solutions to problems (to solve problems).

All problems have a generic basis: To learn (to determine) how to achieve a desire or avoid a fear according to priorities.

Therefore, a problem is learning how to achieve a desire or avoid a fear according to priorities.