The Extrapolation Principle
Robert Howard Kroepel
Copyright © 2004
20 South Shore Road
New Durham, New Hampshire USA 03855-2107
The extrapolation principle (EP) says that when a phenomenon is observed
at one scalar level it is assumed to occur at all scalar levels until a disconfirming/falsifying
case is observed (and not merely intuited).
The extrapolation principle is similar to inductive reasoning in which many
examples/cases are observed to derive data from which generalizations can
be derived which are assumed to be true/verified until a disconfirming/falsifying
case is observed.
In inductive reasoning there is no necessary initial assumption of the extrapolation
principle, but it is implied as true/verified until a disconfirming/falsifying
case is observed.
Thus, to include the extrapolation principle, the scientific method can be
1. Specify the unit of study [the people/things/events to be studied].
2. Observe and/or measure the units of study to gather data.
3. Create a causal hypothesis which describes and predicts the causes of
effects among the people/things/events who/which are the units of study.
4. Observe/measure more people/things/events who/which are units of study
to gather additional data which can be used to confirm [verify] or deny [falsify]
the causal hypothesis.
5. Determine if or not the additional data confirm/verify or deny the causal
6. If the data confirm the causal hypothesis, then let other people know
of the hypothesis and the scientific method that lead to the creation and
confirmation of the hypothesis, and declare the verified/confirmed hypothesis
to be a scientific law/law of nature; but if the data do not confirm the
causal hypothesis, then either revise the hypothesis to fit the data, or
else create a new hypothesis and follow the Scientific Method Steps 4-6.
Extrapolation of the confirmed hypothesis from the observed scales to all
other scales until disconfirming [falsifying] people/things/events are observed