Ancient Egyptian Mythical Parallels to the Jesus Myth


Can we find mythical elements in Egyptian mythology which are forerunners of mythical elements in Christian mythology?

E.G., are Egyptian mythical elements found in the Jesus myth?

John G. Jackson, in Christianity Before Christ [American Atheist Press, PO Box 2117, Austin, TX 78768-2117, 1985, pp. 43-46.], cites Gerald Massey in Ancient Egypt: Light of the World, Vol. II, p. 757 [London, T. Fisher Unwin, 1907], as providing information concerning the mythical elements of an annunciation, an immaculate conception, a virgin birth, and an adoration as presented as consecutive engravings on the inner walls of Temple of Luxor, in Luxor, Egypt, from the time of King Amenhotep III (1538-1501 B.C.).

The engravings are presented as four scenes in consecutive order describing the birth of the Egyptian god, Horus.

Citing Jackson citing Massey, we have the following four scenes:

1. The Annuncation

The god Thoth announces to a virgin, Isis, the impending birth of her son, Horus.

2. The Immaculate Conception

The god Kneph (Holy Ghost) and the goddess Hathor hold crosses, sign of life, to the head and nostrils of Isis and mystically impregnate
her.

3. The Birth of the Child God

The mother, Isis, sits on a midwife's stool, and the newly born infant, Horus, is held by attendants.

4. The Adoration

The infant Horus receives homage from gods and Three Kings, the Magi, who offer him gifts.

Jackson cites Samuel Sharpe in Egyptian Mythology and Egyptian Christianity [London: J. R. Smith, 1879, p. 19.] thus:

       In this [set of engravings] we have the Annunciation, the Conception, the Birth, and [the] Adoration as described in the first
       and second chapter of Luke's Gospel ...

Critics should remember that the scenes described are literally carved in stone on the walls of the Temple at Luxor and stand as an original source of mythical elements of the Horus myth.

Here is a table presenting the Egyptian mythical element parallels to the Jesus mythical elements.
 
The Egyptian Horus Myth Parallels to the Christian Jesus Myth
The Egyptian Horus Myth
The Jesus Myth
1. The Annunciation of the Birth of Horus 1. The Annunciation of the Birth of Jesus
2. The Immaculate Conception/Impregnation of a Virgin by God(s) 2. The Immaculate Conception/Impregnation of a Virgin by God
3. The Birth of Horus 3. The Birth of Jesus
4. The Adoration of Horus by Three Kings/Magi Bearing Gifts 4. The Adoration of Jesus by Three Kings/Magi Bearing Gifts

The Egyptian Horus myth mystical elements of annuncation, immaculate impregnation, birth, and adoration are similar to the mythical elements of the early life of Jesus found in the Jesus myth.

Jackson, in Christianity Before Christ, pp. 96-109, describes the Egyptian Horus myth as connected to the Egyptian Osiris myth:

The mythology and symbolism relative to Osiris and Horus is rather complicated ... In ancient Egypt the kings were gods; the living king was the Horus and the dead king was the Osiris.
Jackson, p. 96, cites a Professor Hocart as saying the following:
Osiris, after his death, became a king in the underworld ... and from his dead body his successor, Horus, is conceived. But every dead king is Osiris and every living king Horus. Thus Osiris and Horus are really the same, Horus being the living form of Osiris, an Osiris the dead form of Horus. There is thus a succession of men who are killed, become gods, and are succeeded by their posthumous sons. ... (A. M. Hocart, Social Origins, London, Watts and Co., 1954, pp. 79-82.)
Jackson, p. 109, states that the resurrection of Osiris is depicted by bas-reliefs (stone carvings on the a wall or a side of an altar, a statue, etc.) of the walls of a Temple of Osiris a Denderah, Egypt, in which Osiris is presented (1) as a  mummy on his bier, (2) he arises, and (3) stands erect, with Isis standing behind him, and a male figure hold a crux ansata, an Egyptian symbol of life. Jackson also states that another Osiris resurrection is depicted at the Temple of Isis in Philae, Egypt, upon which is this inscription: "This is the form of him whom one may not name, Osiris of the Mysteries (myths), who springs from the returning waters."

Again, critics should remember that the Osiris myth resurrection scenes described are literally carved in stone on the walls of the Temple of Osiris at Denderah and the Temple of Isis at Philae and stand as original sources of mythical elements of the Osiris myth.

We herein have an ancient Egyptian mythical element of a death and resurrection and a parallel to the death and resurrection mythical element in the Jesus myth.

 
The Egyptian Osiris Myth Parallels to the Christian Jesus Myth
1. Osiris is Killed (Death of Osiris) 1. Jesus is Killed (Death of Jesus)
2. Osiris is Resurrected 2. Jesus is Resurrected

Jackson, pp. 113-114, states that the English expert on Egyptology, Gerald Massey, listed in an appendix to his book, Ancient Egypt: Light of the World, 200 Egyptian parallels to the Jesus myth.

Jackson, p. 114, further cites Albert Churchward, a follower of Massey, as offering the Egyptian Horus mythical element parallels to the Jesus myth contained in the following table:
 
 
The Egyptian Horus Myth Parallels to the Christian Jesus Myth
1. Horus was the son of Seb, an earthly father 1. Jesus was the son of Joseph, an earthly father
2. Horus stayed with his mother until the age of twelve 2. Jesus stayed with his mother until the age of twelve
3. Between the ages of twelve to thirty there is no record of the life of Horus 3. Between the ages of twelve to thirty there is no record of the life of Jesus in the Gospels (Matthew/Mark/Luke/John/Acts)
4. At age thirty, Horus was baptized by Anup 4. At age thirty, Jesus was baptized by John
5. By his baptism Horus was transformed into the beloved and only begotten Son of the Father, the Holy Spirit, represented by a bird 5. By his baptism Jesus was transformed into the beloved and only begotten Son of the Father, the Holy Spirit, represented by a dove/bird

From a stone tablet discovered in Nineveh, Assyria, and dated 700 B.C., now housed in The British Museum, and referred to by British Museum officials as the Marduk's Ordeal tablet (thanks to British Museum official Christopher Walker for this information and photocopies of translations by S. Langdon and S. A. Pallis of the Marduk's Ordeal tablet), and by me as The Assyrian Bel Myth Tablet, we get a version of the Assyrian Babylonian Bel (Bel-Marduk or Marduk-Bel) myth in which the god Bel is arrested, tried, judged, scourged, executed, and resurrected and thus are similar to the mythical elements of the last days of the life of Jesus found in the Jesus myth.

Critics should remember that the mythical elements of the Bel-Marduk myth are literally carved in stone on Marduk's Ordeal tablet/Assyrian Bel Myth Tablet which stands as an original source of mythical elements of the Bel-Marduk myth.
 
 
 
The Assyrian-Babylonian Bel Myth Parallels to the Christian Jesus Myth
The Assyrian-Babylonian Bel Myth
The Jesus Myth
1. The Arrest of Bel [In the Month of Nisan-- April] 1. The Arrest of Jesus [In the Month of April]
2. The Trial of Bel 2. The Trial of Jesus
3. A Priest/Judge Asks "What is his sin?" 3. Pilate Asks "What evil has he done?" [St. Matthew 27:23]
4. The Judgment Against Bel 4. The Judgment Against Jesus
5. Water Is Brought to the Building for the Washing of Hands 5. Pilate Washes His Hands [St. Matthew 27:24]
6. The Scourging of Bel 6. The Scourging of Jesus
7. A Criminal Condemned to Die with Bel Is Released 7. Criminals Are Condemned to Die with Jesus; Barrabas Is Released
8. Bel is Led Away to the Mount (a sacred grove on a hilltop--a hill for the kill)) 8. Jesus is Led Away to Golgotha (a hill called The Skull--a hill for the kill) [SeeNote 1 below]
9. Bel is Executed [Bel is "Bound/Caused to Perish"--Most likely Crucified] 9. Jesus is Executed/Crucified [See Note 2 below]
10. A Commotion: A Riot Begins in a Nearby City 10. A Commotion: An Earthquake, the Renting of the Veil of the Temple, The Dead Rise, and Walk and Talk with the Living
11. Bel's Clothes Are Taken Away 11. Jesus' Clothes Are Taken Away
12. A Burial Garment Is Put Onto Bel's Body 12. Jesus' Body Is Wrapped in a Burial Garment
13. Bel Is Taken to a Tomb 13. Jesus Is Taken to a Tomb
14. Bel Goes Down into a Mountain/Descends into the Underworld 14. Jesus Descends into Hell [See Note 3 below]
15. Women/Goddesses Seek Bel at the Tomb 15. Women Seek Jesus at the Tomb
16. Bel Is Resurrected 16. Jesus Is Resurrected

Note 1: In a reply on the SecWeb, ...

See http://www.infidels.org/electronic/forum/ubbcgi/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic&f=6&t=000601

See also http://www.infidels.org/electronic/forum/ubbcgi/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic&f=6&t=000879&p=2

... an individual who identifies himself as "Kosh" pointed out that both the Bel myth and the Jesus myth had a "HILL for the KILL"!!!

Note 2: What was the chronological sequence of the execution of Jesus?

Deut. 21:22-23. And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be to be put to death, and thou shall hang him upon a tree: His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him that day: (for he that is hanged is accursed of God); that thy land not be defiled, which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance.

NOTE: These are the words of God as dictated to Moses, ordering a sequence of 1. putting to death a convict and then 2. hanging his body upon a tree, and, therefore, these words and this execution sequence are the Law to the Jews and as the Law are to be obeyed and not modified in any way.

The standard Xn Bible Mark/Matthew/Luke/John death of Jesus chronological sequence is thus: J is executed by crucifixion, in which (1) J is hung on a cross and (2) dies.

There are two passages in Acts which contradict this chronological sequence:

Acts 5:30: The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye slew and hanged on a tree [emphasis added].

Acts 10:39: And we were witnesses of all things which he did both in the land of the Jews and in Jerusalem; whom they slew and hanged on a tree [emphasis added]

Notice that the sequences in Acts is thus: (1) Jesus is slain/dies/is dead; (2) Jesus is hung upon a tree.

The sequence of execution/death by crucifixion is not the same as the sequence of execution/death by some unknown method and then being hung upon a tree.

Note that the execution sequences in Acts follow the execution sequence Law given in Deuteronomy.

Question: Why would anyone execute condemned man/woman and then hang the now dead body upon a tree or cross?

Answer: To publicly humilate the condemned man/woman (dogs were allowed to eat the corpses) and to serve notice of the consequences of their actions to other potential traitors/criminals/terrorists.

There is a serious Xn Bible contradiction herein.

The focus in this discussion is the chronological sequence contradictions.

If the writer(s) of Acts (said to be Luke, the same as in St. Luke?) simply intended to convey the sequence of execution by crucifixion, as found in the Mark/Matthew/Luke/John gospels, then why did they not give the correct sequence instead of the sequence of execution by some unknown means and then being hung upon a tree?

And if Luke wrote both St. Luke and Acts, then why did he contradict himself by writing the execution by crucifixion sequence in St. Luke and the execution then hanging upon a tree sequence in Acts?

Note 3: The descent of Jesus into Hell is specifically stated in The Apostle's Creed:
 

The Apostle's Creed

I believe in God the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth:

And in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; He descended into Hell; the third day He arose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God, the Father Almighty; henceforth he shall come to judge the quick and the dead. [Emphasis added.]

I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy Christian Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.

Biblical references for the idea that Jesus descended into Hell are thus:

1 Peter 3:18:

“... being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the spirit, by which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison.”
The idea that Hell is a prison suggests that this passages refers to a descent into Hell by Jesus.

Acts 2:31:

“... his soul was not left in hell.”
See http://www.askwhy.co.uk/awmob/awcmyth/myt385LIFDescentintoHell.html

Here is a table presenting the combination of Egyptian and Assyrian/Babylonian myth parallels to the Christian Jesus myth.
 
The Egyptian Horus-Osiris/Assyrian-Babylonian Bel-Marduk Myth Parallels to the Christian Jesus Myth
The Egyptian Horus Myth
and
The Assyrian-Babylonian Bel Myth
The Jesus Myth
1. The Annunciation of the Birth of Horus 1. The Annunciation of the Birth of Jesus
2. The Immaculate Conception/Impregnation of a Virgin by God(s) 2. The Immaculate Conception/Impregnation of a Virgin by God
3. The Birth of Horus 3. The Birth of Jesus
4. The Adoration of Horus by Three Kings/Magi Bearing Gifts 4. The Adoration of Jesus by Three Kings/Magi Bearing Gifts
5. Horus was the son of Seb, an earthly father 5. Jesus was the son of Joseph, an earthly father
6. Horus stayed with his mother until the age of twelve 6. Jesus stayed with his mother until the age of twelve
7. Between the ages of twelve to thirty there is no record of the life of Horus 7. Between the ages of twelve to thirty there is no record of the life of Jesus in the Gospels (Matthew/Mark/Luke/John/Acts)
8. At age thirty, Horus was baptized by Anup 8. At age thirty, Jesus was baptized by John
9. By his baptism Horus was transformed into the beloved and only begotten Son of the Father, the Holy Spirit, represented by a bird 9. By his baptism Jesus was transformed into the beloved and only begotten Son of the Father, the Holy Spirit, represented by a dove/bird
10. The Arrest of Bel 10. The Arrest of Jesus
11. The Trial of Bel 11. The Trial of Jesus
12. A Priest/Judge Asks "What is his sin?" 12. Pilate Asks "What evil has he done?" [St. Matthew 27:23]
13. The Judgment Against Bel 13. The Judgment Against Jesus
14. Water Is Brought to the Building for the Washing of Hands 14. Pilate Washes His Hands [St. Matthew 27:24]
15. The Scourging of Bel 15. The Scourging of Jesus
16. A Criminal Condemned to Die with Bel Is Released 16. Criminals Are Condemned to Die with Jesus; Barrabas Is Released
17. Bel is Led Away to the Mount (a sacred grove on a hilltop--a hill for the kill) 17. Jesus is Led Away to Golgotha (a hill called The Skull--a hill for the kill) [SeeNote 1 below]
18. Bel is Executed [Bel is "Bound/Caused to Perish"--Most likely Crucified]-Osiris is Executed/Killed. 18. Jesus is Executed/Crucified
19. A Commotion: A Riot Begins in a Nearby City 19. A Commotion: An Earthquake, the Renting of the Veil of the Temple, 
The Dead Rise, and Walk and Talk with the Living
20. Bel's Clothes Are Taken Away 20. Jesus' Clothes Are Taken Away
21. A Burial Garment Is Put Onto Bel's Body 21. Jesus' Body Is Wrapped in a Burial Garment
22. Bel Is Taken to a Tomb 22. Jesus Is Taken to a Tomb
23. Bel Goes Down into a Mountain/into the Underworld 23. Jesus Descends into Hell (The Apostle's Creed)
24. Women/Goddesses Seek Bel at the Tomb 24. Women Seek Jesus at the Tomb
25. Bel Is Resurrected/Osiris is Resurrected 25. Jesus Is Resurrected

With this many parallels to the Jesus myth found in Egyptian/Assyrian-Babylonian myths—25 in all, the chances are excellent that the Jesus myth is a copycat Christ myth.