Detecting Absolute Motion (AM), Absolute Rest (AR), and the Absolute
Rest Reference Frame (ARRF)
Robert Howard Kroepel
Copyright © 2004
New Durham, New Hampshire, USA 03855
Can physicists detect Absolute Motion (AM), Absolute Rest (AR) and/or the
Absolute Rest Reference Frame (ARRF)?
A definition of time can be used to detect AM/AR/the ARRF.
Time is the use of time-intervals as units of measurement for
[i]the measurement of the occurrences of events in sequences of events[/i].
Time is the answer to the question of When?
When humans 'do time' they want to know When? an event occurred relative
either to the present moment or to specific known events.
Gross time measurements are general descriptions of before/during/after
Specific time measurements are specifications (specific descriptions)
of the number of time-intervals before, the number of time-intervals during,
or the number of time-intervals after the occurrence of an event.
Time is contrasted with space.
Space = Where? v. Time = When?
Thus, an object/machine/organism/event can be described by Where? and/or
The essence of time is the time-interval.
For every time-interval there is a specific duration.
Time-intervals were originally copied from naturally recurring periodic motions
such as the motion of the Earth in its yearly/annual orbit about the Sun.
Thus, a year has a duration relative to the motion of the Earth in
orbit about the Sun, with relative durations of hour, minute,
second, etc., deriving from the duration of the recurring Earth's
orbit abouit the Sun.
Time can be measured as timepoints by time-intervals from an originating
timepoint, TO, both into the future and into the past to create a Continuum
Past Infinity <- ... <- T-2 <- T-1 <- TO -> T+1 -> T+2
-> ... -> Infinity Future
Time-intervals can be variable or invariable.
A variable time-interval changes by increases or decreases in its
An invariable time-interval does not increase or decrease its duration,
i.e its duration remains steady and therefore invariable.
A time-interval sets the rate of operation, or roo, of a machine,
an organism or an event, expressable as operations per time-interval.
Example: In music, a beat is the duration of a conductor's baton motion
from the beginning of a downbeat or downstroke through an upbeat
or upstroke to the end of the next downbeat/downstroke.
Downbeat = \
Upbeat = /
Beat = /\ (or \[b]/\[/b]/)
The duration of a beat sets the tempo, or rate of operation/roo for
a performance of a song/composition.
The duration of a beat in music can be varied, and, thus, the tempo/roo of
a performance can be varied.
A clock is a machine used to measure time/time-intervals.
T = Time
TI = Time-Interval
VTI = Variable Time-Interval
ITI = Invariable Time-Interval
VTIC = Variable Time-Interval Clock
ITIC = Invariable Time-Interval Clock
When T is measured by a TI which is a VTI in a VTIC, such as a mechanical/electric/electronic/atomic
clock, when the VTIC is accelerated its rate of operation (roo) will decrease/slow
down and time will appear to decrease/slow down as well, and when the VTIC
is decelerated its roo will increase/speed up and time will appear to increase/speed
When T is measured by a TI which is an ITI in an ITIC, such as a motion-sensing
and self-adjusting clock, or a clock which is synchronized by radio signals
from a master clock, when the ITIC is accelerated or decelerated its roo
will not change and time will remain the same for all ITICs, and Absolute
Time (AT) is achieved.
When T is measured by a TI which is an ITI in an ITIC and is therefore AT,
then simultaneity is defined as when two (or more) events accur at/during
the same timepoint.
When a VTIC and an ITIC are set to the same TI they will operate at the same
roo in either (A) the original reference frame (ORF) or (B) at the same velocity
as the original velocity (OV) when they were set into operation.
The comparison of the roo of a VTIC to the roo of an ITIC could be used to
determine three physical conditions: Absolute Motion (AM), Absolute Rest
(AR), and the Absolute Rest Reference Frame (ARRF).
If a VTIC and an ITIC are placed aboard a spaceship and accelerated (by the
application of a force), the VTIC's roo will slow but the ITIC's roo will
remain steady until the SOL is approached/achieved, at which velocity the
VTIC will cease to operate and its roo will be zero. Thus, at the SOL,
the minimum roo of the VTIC would be achieved.
In theory, the ITIC's roo will also be zero, but for this thought experiment
this fact is to be disregarded.
If the combination of VTIC/ITIC aboard the spaceship were decelerated (by
the application of a force), then the VTIC's roo would increase while the
ITIC's roo would remain steady, and when the spaceship stopped its motion
and thereby achieved AR and thus entered the ARRF, the VTIC's roo would be
at its maximum.
NOTE: Velocity in physics is speed and direction, and when an object is decelerated
by the application of a force which slows down/decreases its speed while
maintaining its direction there will be a point in the deceleration in which
the motion of the object will cease entirely and if the force is applied
after/beyond that point the object will begin to accelerate in the opposite
NOTE: The ITIC used for comparison is in theory to remain at a constant roo
regardless of its velocity.
Thus, the roo of a VTIC would serve as a cosmic speedometer/speed gauge when
compared to an ITIC when both are set to the same TI/roo in the originating
By the comparison of a VTIC roo with an ITIC roo, AM can be detected from
the reading of the VTIC.
VTIC: Max ROO/AM = 0 = AR/ARRF <-> OV/ORF ROO/ITIC ROO <-> Min/ROO
= 0/AM = SOL
Thus, if it were possible to compare a VTIC roo to an ITIC roo after the
TIs and therefore the roos of both the VTIC and the ITIC are set to be identical
in the ORF, the VTIC would serve as a cosmic speedometer with a range from
its max at AM zero in the ARRF and its min/zero at AM SOL, and, therefore,
whatever is the reading of the VTIC roo, that roo will be the speedometer
reading for the AM of an object.
And, thus, in theory, at least, by the use of a definition of time
AM, AR and the ARRF can be detected.