The Conceptualization of the Universe

 

Bob Kroepel

Copyright 2019

Lakeside Studios

New Durham, NH USA 03855

Introduction

We are all philosophers.

We conceptualize reality and we solve problems.

Philosophers conceptualize reality and solve problems.

When (P) we do what philosophers do—conceptualize reality and solve problems, then (Q) we function as philosophers, and, therefore, we are philosophers.

Philosophy

Philosophy = The discipline whose practitioners, philosophers, discover or create and develop the master set of concepts, principles and techniques which are called the philosophers' tools and which can be used by practitioners in all disciplines to conceptualize reality and to solve problems.

Philosopher = Individual who discovers or creates and develops that master set of concepts, principles and techniques which are the philosophers' tools which can be used for conceptualizing reality and solving problems; an individual who conceptualizes reality and solves problems by discovering or creating the master set of concepts, principles and techniques which are the philosophers' tools.

Conceptualization = Creating concepts and principles as mental representations (ideas, intuitions) of the space, time and m/e which are the components which comprise the universe and the people, objects and events who/which exist within space, endure over time and are comprised of m/e (matter-energy), all of which comprise reality.

Concept = Mental representation (idea, intuition) of a person, an object or an event.

Principle = Mental representation (idea, intuition) of a causal or coincidental relationship between or among people, objects and/or events.

Causality = The physical phenomenon which is the process by which people, objects or/and events as causes cause as effects (A) changes of the physical states of pre-existing people, objects and/or events or (B) new people, objects and/or events from pre-existing m/e.

Coincidentiality = Proximality = The physical phenomenon which is the non-causal location or proximity of people, objects and/or events to other people, objects and/or events; the nearness of people, objects and/or events to each other without any causal interaction between or among them.

Technique = An application of a concept and its relevant principle(s) for the purpose of solving a problem—learning how to achieve a desire or avoid a fear according to priorities.

Problem = Learning how to achieve a desire or avoid a fear according to priorities.

Desire = Wanting a person, object or event.

Fear = Not-wanting a person, object or event.

Priority = The importance (value) of each desire and fear relative to all other desires and fears.

Mind = An individual's personal set of desires, fears and priorities.

Feeling = A reaction to a realization of a desire or fear.

D-R-F = The sequence in which feelings develop: Desire-Realization-Feeling.

1. Desire: _____ (?): Wanting a person, object or event.

2. Realization: _____ (?): The achievement or non-achievement of the Desire.

3. Feeling: _____ (?): The Reaction to the Realization of the Desire.

Problem-Solving = A process for learning how to achieve desires and avoid fears according to priorities.

Reality = The universe; all physical phenomena; space, time, m/e; people, objects and events who/which are comprised of m/e.

The Universe

Universe = Space + Time + M/E

Space

Space = The volume of infinite radius or diameter, the infinite volume, or i-volume, (1) which has no surface and therefore no shape and therefore no boundary, (2) within which exist time—the temporal process—and the people, objects and events who/which are comprised of m/e, (3) which surrounds and includes all finite volumes, or f-volumes, which are subvolumes of the i-volume, (4) which if devoid of m/e would be a pure vacuum, (5) which is measured by humans by their choice of a chosen distance called a space-interval applied to distance-measuring instruments including rulers, yardsticks, metersticks, etc., and (6) which by its infinite size eliminates any possibility of the existence of another i-volume and therefore another space and therefore another universe.

Time

Time (T) = The combination of the temporal principle and the temporal process.

The Temporal Principle = The use of a duration of a recurring or periodic motion or cycle as a time-interval for the unit of measurement for the measurement of the durations between the occurrences of multiple events, the durations of single events, and the durations (ages) of people, objects and events and for the generation in timepieces their timerates, timepoints, timelines, and timecounts for the purpose of determining the sequences of events, the simultaneities of events, the causalities and coincidentialities of people, objects and events, and the changerates of events, and for the coordination of events in single and multiple reference frames and upon single and multiple reference bodies.

Time-Interval (TI) = A duration, possibly modeled after a recurring or periodic motion or cycle, used for a unit of temporal measurement.

Timepiece = Clock, watch, sundial, etc., used for temporal measurement.

Timepoint (TP) = Timemarks, points of time on a timeline.

Timeline = Continuum of time, history of time, the progression of timepoints.

Timecount (TC) = The record of timepoints on a timeline, always by addition, from a chosen origin or starting timepoint from the past through the present into the future.

The Temporal Process = The use by humans, space aliens, if they exist, gods, goddesses, demons, and demonnesses, if they exist, and machines of a chosen duration of a recurring or periodic motion or cycle as a time-interval for the unit of measurement for the measurement of the durations between the occurrences of multiple events, the durations of single events, and the durations (ages) of people, objects and events and for the generation in timepieces their timerates, timepoints, timelines, and timecounts for the purpose of determining the sequences of events, the simultaneities of events, the causalities and coincidentialities of people, objects and events, and the changerates of events, and for the coordination of events in single and multiple reference frames and upon single and multiple reference bodies.

[The combination of the temporal principle and the temporal process comprise the long definition of time.]

Time = The measurement of durations by chosen durations. [The short operational definition of time.]

Premise #1: Physical Phenomenon: When clocks are accelerated, their timerates and timecounts decrease relative to the timerates and timecounts of unaccelerated identical clocks; when clocks are decelerated, their timerates and timecounts increase relative to the timerates and timecounts of undecelerated identical clocks; thus, the timerates and timecounts of distortable clocks vary inversely with accelerations and decelerations.

Premise #2: Physical Phenomenon: When objects comprised of m/e are accelerated, their kinetic mass-energies (KMEs) increase; when objects comprised of m/e are decelerated, their KMEs decrease; thus, the KMEs of distortable clocks vary directly with accelerations and decelerations; thus the timerates and timecounts of distortable clocks vary inversely with variations of the clocks' KMEs as well as varying inversely with accelerations and decelerations. The distortable clock effect caused by KME changes is similar to the effect of the slowdown of a soldier's footpace when the load he is carrying is increased and the speedup of the soldier's footpace when the load he is carrying is decreased.

Conclusion: When distortable clocks are accelerated and their timerates and timecounts vary inversely with accelerations and thereby decrease relative to the timerates and timecounts of unaccelerated identical clocks, this timerate and timecount decrease is an inverse variation which is an effect which is caused by increases of the clocks' KMEs; when distortable clocks are decelerated and their timerates and timecounts vary inversely with the decelerations and thereby increase, this increase is an inverse variation which is an effect which is caused by decreases of the clocks' KMEs.

TI = Time-Interval = The chosen duration which is used as the unit of temporal measurement.

There are two types of TIs: (1) VTI vs (2) ITI.

VTI = Variable Time-Interval = TI which varies inversely with accelerations and decelerations.

ITI = Invariable Time-Interval = TI which does not vary with accelerations and decelerations.

Because there are two types of TIs, VTIs vs ITIs, there are two types of clocks: (1) VTICs vs (2) ITICs.

VTIC = Variable Time-Interval Clock = Timepiece whose TI varies inversely with accelerations and decelerations; a distortable clock, a clock whose time-interval, timerate, timepoints, timeline, and timecount are not adjusted to compensate for distortions caused by accelerations and decelerations.

ITIC = Invariable Time-Interval Clock = Timepiece whose TI does not vary with accelerations and decelerations; an adjustable or non-distortable clock, a clock whose time-interval, timerate, timepoints, timeline, and timecount are adjusted to compensate for distortions caused by accelerations and decelerations.

There are two types of ITICs/adjustable clocks:

(1) Radio Clocks—The combination of a master clock and slave clocks by which the master clock sends radio signals to control the timerates and timecounts of slave clocks—used in the GPS navigational system;

(2) Inertial Clocks—Clocks equipped with accelerometers which sense accelerations and decelerations and send relevant info to computers which adjust the clocks' timerates and timecounts to maintain a pre-set timerate and resulting timecount—used in the inertial navigation system—the INS—of military aircraft, ships, and tanks.

Because there are two types of clocks, VTICs vs ITICs, there are two types of time: (1) VTICT vs (2) ITICT.

VTICT = Variable Time-Interval Clock Time which is local time (LT).

ITICT = Invariable Time-Interval Clock Time which is absolute time (AT).

VTICs measure VTICT which is local time (LT); ITICs measure ITICT which is absolute time (AT).

Using the concepts and relevant principles of local time (LT) and absolute time or adjustable time (AT),

LTI = Local Time-Interval.

ATI = Absolute Time-Interval or Adjustable Time-Interval.

LTIC = Local Time-Interval Clock.

ATIC = Absolute Time-Interval Clock or Adjustable Time-Interval Clock.

Because there are two types of time, VTICT/LT vs ITICT/AT, there are two types of temporal continuums: (1) The Continuum of Local Time (CoLT) vs (2) The Continuum of Absolute Time (CoAT).

CoLT = The Continuum of Local Time/The Continuum of VTICT.

CoAT = The Continuum of Absolute Time/The Continuum of ITICT.

CoAT: Infinity Past (-T) (-T2) – (-T1) – T0 (Origin) – (+T1) – (+T2) (+T) Future Infinity.

Matter-Energy (M/E)

M/E = The elementary and subatomic particles, atoms and molecules which comprise matter and antimatter and all people, objects and events who/which exist in space and endure over time.

Universal M/E System (UMES) = The elementary and subatomic particles, atoms and molecules (1) which comprise the people, objects and events who/which exist in space, endure over time, and are comprised of m/e within the space, time and m/e which comprise the universe, (2) which is a closed/isolated m/e system because there is no other space or i-volume which could contain another m/e system with which the UMES could exchange m/e, therefore (2A) m/e cannot be removed from the UMES, and (2B) m/e cannot be added to the UMES, by experiments in thermodynamics by Sadi Carnot, experiments in chemistry by Antoine and Marie LaVoisier, and by experiments which confirmed Albert Einstein's E = mc2 and m = E/c2, m/e has been proven to be indestructible, uncaused, uncreated, unbegun, and therefore has always existed, exists now in the present and will exist in the future, i.e. the sum total of m/e in the UMES is a constant, (3) the UMES is the uncaused, uncreated, and unbegun source of causality and coincidentiality, and (4) m/e is measured by chosen masses known as mass-units.

Mass-Unit = Mass quantity chosen for a unit of m/e measurement.

For each timepoint (timemark) along the CoAT, the UMES has a specific configuration or pattern; this m/e configuration and timepoint combination is unique and can never be replicated in reality. If the motions of all particles, atoms, molecules, people, objects, and events were reversible so that a previous UMES configuration could be 're-achieved' or 'resurrected', that re-achievement or resurrection would occur at a different and newer timepoint along the CoAT and thus inre time, inre the CoAT, the UMES re-achievement or resurrection would in reality be a new CoAT Timepoint & UMES Configuration combination.

CoAT (T&UMES): Infinity Past (-T&UMES) (-T2&UMES2) – (-T1&UMES1) – T0 (Origin: T0&UMES0) – (+T1&UMES1) – (+T2&UMES2) (+T&UMES) Future Infinity.

Time Travel = The removal of a person or object including his/her/its m/e from a present CoAT Timepoint & UMES Configuration (T0&UMES0) to a previous or future CoAT Timepoint & UMES Configuration.

Time travel is impossible (1) because m/e cannot be created nor destroyed, (2) because the UMES is a closed/isolated m/e system which cannot and therefore does not exchange m/e with any other m/e system, and (3) because the UMES has a specific sum total at each CoAT timepoint that cannot be changed by the removal of m/e necessary for a person or an object to travel to a previous or future CoAT timepoint and UMES configuration and his/her/its m/e to be added to that previous or future UMES configuration sum total.

Operational Definition = The definition of a term or a phrase by a description of the people, objects or/and events who/which are relevant to the term or the phrase being defined.

Q: What do people do when they 'do time'?

A: When people 'do time' they use chosen durations as time-intervals for the measurement of the durations between the occurrences of multiple events, the durations of single events, and the durations (ages) of people, objects and events, and for the generation in timepieces of timerates, timepoints, timelines, and timecounts to be used for the determination of the sequences of events, the simultaneities of events, the causalities and coincidentialities of events, and the changerates of events, and for the coordination (synchronization) of events, inre single and multiple reference frames and bodies.

The Extrapolation Principle

The Extrapolation Principle = A phenomenon observed/measured at one scalar level, in one reference frame or on one reference body is expected to occur at all other scalar levels, in all reference frames and upon all reference bodies until disconfirmed by future observations/measurements.

[The extrapolation principle is the basis of the general principle of relativity—phenomena observed at one scalar level, in one reference frame, and/or upon one reference body are expected and therefore are extrapolated to occur at all scalar levels, within all reference frames, and upon all reference bodies as NCRs or NPRs until disconfirming observations are discovered or made which disprove them to be NCRs or NPRs; reveals howitiz and whyitiz that the use of intuition can reveal NCRs and NPRs.]

The Law of Physical States

The Law of Physical States = A physical state will remain unchanged until acted upon by a force.

The Corollaries of the Law of Physical States

The Corollaries of the Law of the Physical State:

Corollary 1: A force is a form of matter-energy;

Corollary 2: A force is a push (push-force) or a pull (pull-force);

Corollary 3: Only a force can cause a change of physical state;

Corollary 4: The observation or measurement of a change of a physical state implies the cause of the physical state change to be a force that is a form of matter-energy.

[Corollary #4 of the law of physical states reveals the reality of the existence of forces at SR/GR and QM scalar levels that infer/imply causality and therefore determinism is occurring at all scalar levels;  Corollary #4 reveals the links that bind Relativity and QM theories together into the Theory of Everything (ToE).]

The 1971 Hafele-Keating C-Atom Clock Experiment

[Reveals howitiz and whyitiz that time is no more than the use of a chosen duration for the unit of measurement of other durations and howitiz and whyitiz that when distortable clocks are accelerated the only phenomena that happens are (1) the clocks' KMEs increase with accelerations and decrease with decelerations and (2) the clock's timerates and timecounts decrease with accelerations and increase with decelerations; by the Extrapolation Principle and the use of intuition, if adjustable clocks are used in replications of the H-K C-Atom Clock Experiment (HKCACE) then those adjustable clocks' timerates and timecounts will not change regardless of changes of the clocks' KMEs and regardless of accelerations and decelerations.]

Newton's Concept of Time

Isaac Newton thought there was a universal timepulse that was the same for all observers in any and all reference frames and upon any and all reference bodies. He may have based his concept of time upon observations and measurements of regularly recurring repetitive or cyclical natural events such as the motion of lightpulses from the Sun to the Earth (eight minutes on average). He therefore would most likely have inferred that if all observers use the same timepulse, then they would all have the same time reference which would be the same chosen duration and, adjusting for the effects caused by changes of timepieces' timerates and timecounts caused by accelerations and decelerations which also cause changes of the timepieces' KMEs, so original timerates and timecounts are preserved/maintained, observers would have timepieces (1) that would measure the universal time (UT), the adjustable clock time (ACT), the absolute time (AT), of the universe and (2) that would generate the Continuum of Absolute Time (CoAT) which in reality would be the Continuum of Adjustable Time (CoAT) or the Continuum of Adjustable Timepieces (CoATs).

The Concepts of the AV, AR, AM, RV, and the ARRF

AV = Absolute Velocity – the relative velocity (RV) of anything traveling past either a spacepoint at which a lightray (LR) was emitted from a lightsource (LS) or the center-of-mass (CoM) of an object at rest at absolute rest (AR) at 0.00 mps in the absolute rest reference frame (ARRF).

AR = Absolute Rest – the physical state (condition) in which an object is at-rest when it has an absolute velocity (AR) or a relative velocity (RV) of 0.00 mps in the absolute rest reference frame (ARRF).

AM = Absolute Motion – the physical state (condition) in which an object is in-motion when it has an absolute velocity (AR) greater than 0.00 mps. The maximum absolute velocity (AVMax) or maximum relative velocity (RVMax) is c or 186,000 mps; the minimum absolute velocity (AVMin)

RV = Relative Velocity – the physical state (condition) in which an object is in-motion at an absolute velocity (AR1) that is different from the absolute velocity (AR2) of another object. The maximum relative velocity (RVMax) is 2c or 372,000 mps (which occurs when two objects are in-motion parallel to each other at c towards or away from each other; the minimum relative velocity (RVMin) is 0.00 mps.

[RVi = AV1 ­­ AV2]

LR = Light Ray or Lightray – a light wave or lightwave (LW) or light pulse or lightpulse (LP) that is emitted from a lightsource (LS) at a light emission spacepoint (LES).

LS = Light Source or Lightsource – anything that emits light, that emits a lightray (LR) or lightwave LW) or lightpulse (LP).

LES = Light Emission Spacepoint – the point in space at which a lightray (LR) is emitted. DeSitter has proven that the motion of a lightsource (LS) imparts no motion – no velocity – to a lightray (LR), therefore a spacepoint at which a lightray is emitted – a light emission spacepoint (LES) – has no motion – no absolute velocity (AV) and is therefore at-rest at absolute rest (AR) in the absolute rest reference frame (ARRF) at the absolute velocity (AV) of 0.00 mps.

LESRF = Light Emission Spacepoint Reference Frame – the reference frame in which exist all light emission spacepoints (LESs) that is also the absolute rest reference frame (ARRF).

CoM = Center-of-Mass – the point of an object at which the mass density (MD) is equal in all directions. [An object's CoM is the point at which an object would be balanced if it were raised upon a pointed stake.] A CoM has has no distance-dimension.

The use of LTCs and ATCs aboard a spacecraft can reveal the existence of AV = 0 mps, whichiz the set of conditions for AR, and therefore the set of spacepoints for the ARRF.

Under accelerations and decelerations, the timerates and timecounts of LTCs would change but the timerates and timecounts of ATCs would not change; the observation rates (RoOs, rates of observation) of observers will change along with the timerates (TRs) and timecounts (TCs) of distortable LTCs so the observers will observe no change of the LTCs' timerates and timecounts but the observers WILL observe a change of the ATCs' timerates and timecounts wherein the ATCs' timerates and timecounts will appear to increase with accelerations and decrease with decelerations.

Physical

Phenomena

Reality LTC

TR&TC

Reality ATC

TR&TC

Observer LTC

TR&TC

Observer ATC

TR&TC

Acceleration

Decrease

TR&TC

No Change

TR&TC

No Change

TR&TC

Increase

TR&TC

Deceleration

Increase

TR&TC

No Change

TR&TC

No Change

TR&TC

Decrease

TR&TC

                       

Light Motion and AVs, RVs, AR, AM, and the ARRF

Whereas the speed of light in a vacuum (a subvolume of space/the spatial component of the universe which is devoid of m/e) is a constant, c, 186,000 mps (confirmed by experiments inre lightpulses emitted by rotating stars by DeSitter), the motion of a light source (LS) imparts no motion to the motion of a lightray (LR) or lightwave (LW) or lightpulse (LP); therefore the spacepoint at which an LR is emitted from an LS has no motion and is therefore at AV = 0.00 mps which means the RV of an LR relative to the spacepoint at which the LR was emitted from its LS, the light emission spacepoint (LES), is RV = c or 186,000 mps. Therefore, if there are LESs, there is a light emission spacepoint reference frame (LESRF, pronounceable as "LES-Ref")