Biblical Contradictions: Introduction

Robert Howard Kroepel

Copyright © 2000
20 South Shore Road
New Durham, New Hampshire, USA 03855
Is the Bible true? Is it an accurate description of things and events relating man to God?
    Without corroboration of its claims from independent sources we can only look within the Bible for signs that it is or is not true.
    One of the signs that at least some if not most if not all of the Bible is false would surely have to be the presence of contradictions (inconsistencies) in cases where two or more stories describe the same facts (contradictory stories of the same facts, e.g., the same people, objects and events, are called doublets).
    Contradictions—what are they?
    Can we find contradictions in the Bible?
    What is a contradiction? A contradiction is defined herein as a difference of details between or among narratives (stories) or assertions about the same person(s)/thing(s)/event(s).
    Contradictions can be about the characteristics of persons and things, or about the sequence of events. Thus, if in the Christian Bible we find differences concerning the characteristics of mystical beings including Jesus and human beings, and/or differences concerning the actions/reactions of mystical beings and humans, which are the sequences of events in which mystical beings and/or humans participated, then we are justified in asserting and claiming as truth that contradictions exist within the Christian Bible.
    If there should be contradictory accounts of the same facts, then one of these two possibilities is the truth:
1. One account is true and the other(s) is (are) false.
2. All accounts are false.
    Apologists may claim that all accounts may be true, because "with god nothing is impossible" [Luke 1:37.], but we have not been given the explanation of how seemingly contradictory accounts could be true. [1]
    This explanation is unacceptable. It is irrational. We have never witnessed circumstances in which conflicting and thus contradictory accounts of the same people/things/events have been true. No man has been both alive and dead at the same time. Nothing has been possible and impossible at the same time. Without confirmation by common sense, which itself has to have been confirmed by experience, contradictory and therefore conflicting accounts—doublets—cannot be true in the same way and at the same time. This does not happen for humans; and it does not happen for mystical beings.
    The Laws of Logic do not allow for different accounts of the same people, objects and events—doublets—to be true.
    The Laws of Logic: (1) The Law of Identity: A = A (A is equal to B, A is the same as A, A is A); (2) The Law of Non-Contradiction: A≠ B (A is not equal to B, A is not the same as B, A is not B, A cannot be B): (3) The Law of The Excluded Middle: A ≠ A + B (A is not equal to A and B, A is not the same as A and B, A is not A + B, A cannot be A at the same time it is B). [2]
    Let's look at three types of contradictions: inclusions, exclusions and sequences.
    What is an inclusion?
    An inclusion is a claim of facts included in one story but not present in any other story attempting to describe the same facts. If Matthew 27:53-54 claims that at the time of Jesus' crucifixion an earthquake struck, the earth opened, and people known to have been dead arose from their graves and walked among the living, then this story is an inclusion—it is not present in any of the other gospels.
    By contrast, an exclusion is a claim of facts left out of one account but present in at least another account describing the same set of facts. The earthquake and the resurrection of the dead were included in Matthew but were excluded from John, Luke and Mark.
    A sequence is a listing of the order in which a series of people/things/events occurred. In a sequence including as facts people/things/events A, B and C, if A occurs before B, and B occurs before C, then the proper listing is A-B-C. Reading from left to right, in standard American English, the listing A-B-C shows clearly that A occurred before B and B occurred before C. A listing of A-C-B would be incorrect, as would any other listing except A-B-C.
    If a sequence describing a set of facts is listed as A-B-C, but another sequence describing the same set of facts is listed A-C-B, then you have a contradiction. Contradicting (inconsistent) sequences cannot both be true. This is a point of logic, but it is also a point of reason. It is unreasonable (irrational, illogical) to claim that two contradictory (or more) sequences describing the same facts can both be true. In the Bible we can find many contradictory sequences. Among them are the contradiction of the sequence in which man and the animals were made. In Genesis 1:25-26 the sequence is animals-man, but in Genesis 2:18-20 the sequence is man-animals. And there is the contradiction of the sequence of the genealogy of Jesus in St. Luke 3:23-38 listing 36 generations from Abraham to Joseph, the father of Jesus, including the claim that Jesus' lineage follows David's son, Solomon, not David's son Nathan, and the claim that Joseph's father is Jacob, not Heli, which contradicts the genealogy of Jesus in St. Matthew 1:1-16 listing 50 generations from Abraham to Joseph including the claim that Jesus' lineage follows Nathan, not Solomon, and the claim that Joseph's father is Heli, not Jacob.
    Whenever we find several stories which have contradictory claims of facts, such as inclusions/omissions and/or sequence errors, we know, from simple logic, 1. that all stories cannot be true, 2. that one story is true and the others are false, or 3. all stories are false.
    And if one story is true and all others are false, we would have the additional problem of determining which story is true and which are false.
    If we should be reading a book ascribed to a god/goddess, who/which is defined as a transcendent being (unique personality) more knowledgeable and more powerful then one man individually or mankind collectively, (as contrasted with an immanent being, present in all things) then we should expect that book should contain no contradictions.
    Why?
    The presence of one contradiction would indicate that at least part of the book is false and, therefore, that at least part of the book is not inspired by a god/goddess.
    With all the knowledge and power supposedly held by a god/goddess, we should expect that a holy book would be an accurate eyewitness account by mortals or an accurate inspiration by the god/goddess. If the eyewitnesses or the gods/goddesses contradict each other, then we can logically conclude that one is unreliable, or all are unreliable, but we would then face the twin problems of determining 1. who was reliable and who was unreliable, and 2. if or not stories by the same eyewitnesses or gods/goddesses about different sets of facts are to be trusted, for, after all, if eyewitnesses  or gods/goddesses were unreliable once, they could be unreliable again.
    It is simply unbelievable that contradictions could occur in a so-called holy book. They prove that at least part of the book is false and raise the possibility that the entire book is false. Gods/goddesses ought to be able to give to us a clear, noncontradictory account of their existence and what they want from humans.
    Have we a right to expect that gods/goddesses have an obligation to transmit to us an accurate, noncontradictory holy book? It seems to me we do. And it seems to me that to expect such a book from the gods/goddesses is not an arrogance but a logical necessity which ought to be fulfilled if the gods/goddesses really do care about their relationships to human beings.
    Some believers will stretch reason and logic beyond limits when they attempt to rationalize contradictions found in the Bible. Words have meanings, and those meanings cannot be twisted beyond recognition just to rationalize a reconciliation of contradictory claims. To claim, as has a friend, that with gods/godesses all things are possible and that, therefore, it is possible that contradictory sequences could be true but we simply have not been given the knowledge to know how and in what way they are true is to abandon reason and logic, for even the gods/goddesses are limited by the principles of logic, one of which is the law of sequential succession.
    If you find yourself reading the following examples of Biblical contradictions and rationalizing—making excuses for—the bewildering thought that if contradictions exist the Bible is false, which means the gods/goddesses 1. do not exist, 2. had nothing to do with the writing of the book—meaning they did not inspire it, or 3. if they exist they have nothing to do with mankind, then know that you are abandoning your reason and sense of logic, which is always dangerous, for then you will be gullible and ready to accept other outrageous claims from cult leaders and followers and find yourself in a trap you may have trouble getting out of. Some theists claim that you have to abandon reason before you can find the gods/goddesses, but they never give a clear reason why abandoning reason is a way if not the only way to find and to know the gods/goddesses.
    And when it comes to claims that with the gods/goddesses all things are possible, just as the old adage tells us that in the case of a con artist's claims if something sounds too good to be true most likely it isn't, likewise, with the gods/goddesses, if something sounds impossible then most likely it isn't. Even the gods/goddesses are limited by requirements for consistency. They cannot, for example, make snowballs so big they—the gods/goddesses—cannot move them!
    And if you have a feeling "in your heart" that there is an explanation for biblical contradictions, then be aware that you have an emotional (subjective) reason that is illogical. Just because something feels good doesn't prove that it is true. Just because you "feel in your heart" that there is an explanation, that, somehow, God would not allow contradictions in the Bible, that feeling, by itself, does not prove that what you believe is true.
    Self-deception is a dangerous thing, for it can take us away from the reality we need to face in order to find the facts that we will need to make effective, rational, reasonable, logical, worthwhile decisions that will enable us to help ourselves and other people enjoy living while we still have life, and while life still is good.
    If the Bible was inspired by God(s), it should not contain any contradictions. Contradictions would prove that the Bible was written by men, not gods.

Have we a right to expect that the word of god, written or spoken, is true?

    Thus, if we find contradictions in the written word, then the word of god is possibly not as pure as described in the Bible, which makes it possible for us to think the Bible is not the word of god.
    If I were a god, would I allow the existence of contradictions in my written word? Would I allow writers to write mistakes concerning descriptions of what I am? Of what I did?
    If I were a god I would not tolerate contradictions in my written word. I would inspire my writers to write only the truth about me and my actions. Truth and trust would have to be the same in my holy works.
    Do we find contradictions in the Christian Bible?

 

Contradictions in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible

What was the sequence of creation? Earth-Animals-Man or Earth-Man-Animals?

Gen. 1:25, 26. And God made the beasts of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good. And God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness." 
[Man made after the beasts. Sequence: Earth-Beasts-Man.]
Gen. 2:18-20. And the LORD God said, "It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make an help meet for him." And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam ... but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him. 
[Man made before the beasts. Sequence: Earth-Man-Beasts.]

How many non-humans were brought aboard the Ark?

Gen. 6:19. Of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark. [One pair of each species, one male, one female.] Gen. 7:2. Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female. [Seven pairs of each, seven males, seven females, fourteen individuals of each species.] Gen. 7:8, 9. Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls ... There went in two and two unto Noah in the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah. [Two pairs, two males, two females, four individuals.]

Who killed Goliath?

1 Sam. 17:4, 7, 50. And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span ... and the staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam ... . So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and a stone, and smote the Philistine and slew him. 2 Sam. 21:19. Revised Version. Elhanan, the son of Jaareoregim, a Bethlehemite, slew Goliath, the Gittite [meaning "of Gath"] the staff of whose speare was like a weaver's beam. 

2 Sam. 21:19. King James Version.  And there was again a battle in Gob with the Philistines, where Elhanan, the son of Jaareoregim, a Bethlehemite, slew the brother of Goliath [italics in original], the Gittite [meaning "of Gath"] the staff of whose speare was like a weaver's beam. 

The words "the brother of" were apparently inserted into the King James Version to avoid a contradiction.

Who killed Saul?

1 Samuel 31:4-6. Then said Saul unto his armourbearer, Draw thy sword, and thrust me through, and abuse me. But his armourbearer would not; for he was sore afraid. Therefore Saul took a sword, and fell upon it. And when his armourbearer saw that Saul was dead, he fell likewise upon his sword, and died with him. So Saul died, and his three sons, and his armourbearer, and all his men, that same day together. 

NOTE: This story is repeated in 1 Chronicles 10:4-6.

2 Samuel 1:1-10. Now, it came to pass after tha death of Saul, when David was returned from the slaughter of the Amalekites, and David had abode two days in Ziklag; It came to pass on the third day, that, behold, a man came out of the camp from Saul with his clothes rent and earth upon his head: and so it was, when he came to David, that he fell to the earth, and did obeissance. And David said unto him, From whence cometh thou? And he said unto him, Out of the camp of Israel am i escaped. And David said unto him, How went the matter? I pray thee, tell me. And he answered, That the people are fled from the battle, and many of the people also are fallen and dead; and Saul and Jonathan his son are dead also. And David said unto him, how knowest thou that Saul and Jonathan his son be dead? And the young man that told him said, As I happened by chance upon Mount Gilboa, behold, Saul leanest upon his spear; and, lo, the chariots and horsemen followed hard after him. And when he looked behind him, he saw me, and called unto me. And I answered, Here am I. And he said unto me, Who art thou? And I answered him, I am an Amalekite. He said unto me again, Stand, I pray thee, upon me, and slay me: for anguish is come upon me, because my life is yet whole within me. So I stood upon him, and slew him, because I was sure that he could not live after that he was fallen: and I took the crown that was upon his head, and the bracelet that was upon his arm, and have brought them hither unto my lord.

Who or what provoked David to number Israel?

1 Chron. 21:1. And Satan stood up against Israel, and provoked David to number Israel. 2 Sam. 24:1. And again the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them to say, "Go, number Israel and Judah."

Did the Lord promise/prophecize that Ahaz, king of Judah, would not be defeated by Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah, king of Israel?

Isaiah 7:3-7: Thus said the LORD unto Isaiah, "Go forth now to meet Ahaz... . And say unto him, 'Take heed, and be quiet; fear not, neither be fainthearted, for the two tails of these smoking firebrands, for the fierce anger of Rezin with Syria, and of the son of Remaliah. Because Syria, Ephraim, and the son of Remaliah, have taken evil counsel against thee, saying, 'Let us go up against Judah, and vex it, and let us make a breach therein for us, and set a king in the midst of it, even the son of Tabeal.' Thus said the LORD God, "It shall not stand, neither shall it come to pass."

Isaiah 7:10-16. Moreover, the Lord spake again unto Ahaz, saying, Ask thee a sign of the Lord thy God; ask it either in the depth, or in the height above. But Ahaz said, I will not ask, neither will I tempt the Lord. And he said, Hear ye now, O house of David; Is it a small thing to you weary men, but will ye weary my God also? Therefore, the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may know to refuse the evil, and choose the good. For before the child shall know to refuse the evil, and choose the good, the land that thou abhorrest shall be forsaken of both her kings.

What was the name of the child/son to be a sign to Ahaz? Immanuel? Or ...

Isaiah 7:14. Therefore, the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. Isaiah 8:2-3. And I [Isaiah] took unto me faithful witnesses to record, Uriah the priest, and Zeckariah the son of Jeberechian. And I went unto the prophetess; and she conceived, and bare a son. Then said the Lord unto me, Call his name Mahershalalhashbaz.

Was Ahaz, king of Judah [ruler of Jerusalem], defeated in battle by Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah, king of Israel? Did God correctly prophecize and therefore keep his word to Ahaz that he would not be defeated in battle?

Isaiah 7:1. And it came to pass in the days of Ahaz the son of Jotham, the son of Uzziah, king of Judah, that Rezin the king of Syria, and  Pekah the son of Remiliah, king of Israel, went up towards Jerusalem to war against it, but could not prevail against it. 

2 Kings 16:5 Then Rezin king of Syria and Pekah the son of Remaliah, king of Israel, came up to Jerusalem to make war; and they besieged Ahaz but could not overcome him.

2 Chronicles 28:5-6 Therefore the LORD his God delivered him (Ahaz) into the hand of the king of Syria. They defeated him, and carried away a great multitude of them as captives, and brought them to Damascus. Then he was also delivered into the hand of the king of Israel, who defeated him with a great slaughter.

Contradictions in the New Testament of the Christian Bible

Who was the father of  Joseph, the husband of Mary, the mother of Jesus?

Matt. 1:16. And Jacob begat Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus. Luke 3:23. Jesus ... the son of Joseph, which was the son of Heli

What was the precise lineage of Jesus? Was he the descendent of the line of David, meaning of the males of David's offspring? Or was he descended from the lineage of Mary? [We have no record of the lineage of Mary.]

Acts. 2:30. God had sworn with an oath to him [David], that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne. 

Rom. 1:3. Concerning his son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh

Matt. 1:18. Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with the child of the Holy Ghost. 

Luke 1:26-38. And in the sixth month [of the pregnancy of Elizabeth with John, who would become John the Baptist] the angel Gabriel was sent from God into a City of Galilee, named Nazareth, To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary. ... And the angel said unto her, "Fear not, Mary: For thou hast found favor with God. And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the  highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father, David: And he shall reign over the house of Jacob forever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end. And then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing that I know not a man? And the angel andswered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God. And, behold, thy cousin Elizabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren. For with God nothing shall be impossible. And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her.


Note that both Matthew and Luke clearly indicate that Mary was a virgin and that, therefore, Joseph could not have been Jesus' father by flesh, which effectively eliminates any genealogy which claims Jesus to have been descended by flesh from the lineage of David.

The Genealogy of Jesus: Who were the ancestors of Jesus?

Matt. 1:1-16. The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. [1] Abraham begat [2] Isaac; and Isaac begat [3] Jacob; and Jacob begat [4] Judas and his brethren; And Judas begat [5] Phares and Zara of Thamar; and Phares begat [6] Esrom; and Esrom begat [7] Aram; And Aram begat [8] Aminadab; and Aminadab begat [9] Nassan; and Naason begat [10] Salmon; And Salmon begat [11] Booz of Rachab; and Booz begat [12] Obed of Ruth; and Obed begat [13] Jesse; And Jesse begat [14] David the king; and David the king begat [15] Solomon of her that had been the wife of Urias; And Solomon begat [16] Roboam; and Roboam begat [17] Abia; and Abia begat [18] Asa; and Asa begat [19] Josaphat; and Josaphat begat [20] Joram; and Joram begat [21] Ozias; and Ozias begat [22] Joatham; and Joatham begat [23] Achaz; and Achaz begat [24] Ezekias; And Ezekias begat [25] Manasses; and Manasses begat [26] Amon; and Amon begat [27] Josias; And Josias begat [28] Jechonias and his brethren, about the time they were carried away to Babylon: And after they were brought to Babylon, Jechonias begat [29] Salathiel; and Salathiel begat [30] Zorobabel; And Zorobabel begat [31] Abiud; and Abiud begat [32] Eliakim; and Eliakim begat [33] Azor; And Azor begat [34] Sadoc; and Sadoc begat [35] Achim; and Achim begat [36] Eliud; And Eliud begat [37] Eleazar; and Eleazar begat [38] Matthan; and Matthan begat [39] Jacob; And Jacob begat [40] Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ. Luke 3:23-38. And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being (as was supposed) the son of [55] Joseph, the son of [54] Heli, Which was the son of [53] Matthat, which was the son of [52] Levi, which was the son of [51] Melchi, which was the son of [50] Janna, which was the son of [49] Joseph, which was the son of [48] Mattathias, which was the son of [47] Amos, which was the son of [46] Naum, which was the son of [45] Esli, which was the son of [44] Nagge, which was the son of [43] Maath, which was the son of [42] Mattathias, which was the son of [41] Semei, which was the son of [40] Joseph, which was the son of [39] Juda, Which was the son of [38] Joanna, which was the son of [37] Rhesa, which was the son of [36] Zorobabel, which was the son of [35] Salathiel, which was the son of [34] Neri, Which was the son of [33] Melchi, which was the son of [32] Addi, which was the son of [31] Cosam, which was the son of [30] Elmodam, which was the son of [29] Er, Which was the son of [28] Jose, which was the son of [27] Eliezer, which was the son of [26] Jorim, which was the son of [25] Matthat, which was the son of [24] Levi, which was the son of [23] Simeon, which was the son of [22] Juda, which was the son of [21] Joseph, which was the son of [20] Jonan, which was the son of [19] Eliakim, Which was the son of [18] Melea, which was the son of [17] Menan, which was the son of [16] Mattatha, which was the son of [15] Nathan, which was the son of [14] David, Which was the son of [13] Jesse, which was the son of [12] Obed, which was the son of [11] Booz, which was the son of [10] Salmon, which was the son of [9] Naasson, Which was the son of [8] Aminadab, which was the son of [7] Aram, which was the son of [6] Esrom, which was the son of [5] Phares, which was the son of [4] Juda, Which was the son of [3] Jacob, which was the son of [2] Isaac, which was tthe son of [1] Abraham, which was the son of Thara, which was the son of Nachor, Which was the son of Ragau, which was the son of Phalec, which was the son of Heber, which was the son of Sala, Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphazad, which was the son of Sem, which was the son of Noe, which was the son of Lamech, Which was the son of Mathusala, which was the son of Enoch, which was the son of Jared, which was the son of Maleleel, which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Enos, which was the son of Seth, which was the son of Adam, which was the son of God.

The Side-By-Side Comparison of the Genealogies of Jesus

St. Matthew: 1:1-16 [KJV]
[1] Abraham 
[2] Isaac 
[3] Jacob 
[4] Judas 
[5] Phares 
[6] Esrom 
[7] Aram 
[8] Aminadab 
[9] Naason 
[10] Salmon 
[11] Booz 
[12] Obed 
[13] Jesse 
[14] David
[15] Solomon
[16] Roboam 
[17] Abia 
[18] Asa 
[19] Josaphat 
[20] Joram 
[21] Ozias 
[22] Joatham 
[23] Achaz 
[24] Ezekias 
[25] Manasses 
[26] Amon 
[27] Josias 
[28] Jechonias 
[29] Salathiel
[30] Zorobabel
[31] Abiud 
[32] Eliakim 
[33] Azor 
[34] Sadoc 
[35] Achim 
[36] Eliud 
[37] Eleazar 
[38] Matthan 
[39] Jacob 
[40] Joseph 

Notice that in Matthew the Davidic lineage passes from David to Solomon whereas in Luke the Davidic lineage passes from David to Nathan. This produces an unacceptable contradiction. Joseph, not the father of Jesus but, instead, the husband of Mary, the mother of Jesus, is either descended from Solomon or from Nathan, but not both Solomon and Nathan. 

Notice that the names Salathiel and Zorobabel are included in both lists, and, theoretically, at least, Salathiel is the father of Zorobabel in both lists. Is this not strange, since the divergence from David of the lineage of Solomon surely is different from the lineage of Nathan and thus would not have normally produced the same father and son pairing?

St. Luke: 3:23-38 [KJV]
[1] Abraham 
[2] Isaac 
[3] Jacob 
[4] Juda 
[5] Phares 
[6] Esrom 
[7] Aram 
[8] Aminadab 
[9] Naasson 
[10] Salmon 
[11] Booz 
[12] Obed 
[13] Jesse 
[14] David
[15] Nathan
[16] Mattatha 
[17] Menan 
[18] Melea 
[19] Eliakim 
[20] Jonan 
[21] Joseph 
[22] Juda 
[23] Simeon 
[24] Levi 
[25] Matthat 
[26] Jorim 
[27] Eliezer 
[28] Jose 
[29] Er 
[30] Elmodam 
[31] Cosam 
[32] Addi 
[33] Melchi 
[34] Neri 
[35] Salathiel
[36] Zorobabel
[37] Rhesa 
[38] Joanna 
[39] Juda 
[40] Joseph 
[41] Semei 
[42] Mattathias 
[43] Maath 
[44] Nagge 
[45] Esli 
[46] Naum 
[47] Amos 
[48] Mattathias 
[49] Joseph 
[50] Janna 
[51] Melchi 
[52] Levi 
[53] Matthat 
[54] Heli 
[55] Joseph 

NOTE: In the original Greek of the Gospel of St. Luke, the word huios in the Lucan genealogy [St. Luke] translates ONLY as "biological son of" and NOT "legal son of," as some apologists have stated. Thus, the Lucan genealogy is a genealogy of Joseph, and not Mary, as some apologists have claimed. [See huios in Theological Dictionary of the New Testament and/or Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament.]

What happened after Jesus was baptized?

Mark 1:9-13. Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in Jordan. And straightway coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens opened, and the Spirit like a dove descending upon him... . And immediately the spirit driveth him into the wilderness. And he was there in the wilderness forty days, tempted of Satan. John 2:1, 2. And the third day [after Christ's baptism and the descent of the Holy Ghost in the Shape of a dove] there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee... . And both Jesus was called, and his disciples, to the marriage.

Where from Bethlehem did Joseph take Mary and Jesus?

Luke 2:39. And when they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own city, Nazareth. Matt. 2:14, 15. When he arose, he took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt: And was there until the death of Herod.

Adding to the possibility that Matthew is contradicting Luke, we can read in Luke 2:41 "Now his [Jesus's] parents [Joseph/Mary] went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover" and contrast this passage with Matt. 2:15 "And [Joseph/Mary/Jesus] was there [in Egypt] until the death of Herod" which indicates clearly that no one left Egypt to go to Jerusalem for the passover feast, a fact which clearly indicates that Luke contradicts Matthew.
 
Luke 2:41 Now his [Jesus's] parents [Joseph/Mary] went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover. Matt. 2:15 And [Joseph/Mary/Jesus] was there [in Egypt] until the death of Herod.

When did Jesus first meet Andrew and Peter? Before or after he commenced his ministry? Before or after John the Baptist had been cast into prison?

John 1:35-36, 40-42. Again the next day after John stood, and two of his disciples And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, "Behold the Lamb of God!" ... One of the two which heard John speak, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. He first findeth his own brother, Simon, and saith unto him, "We have found the Messias," which is, being interpreted, the Christ. And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said, "Thou are Simon the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas," which is by interpretation, a stone. Matt. 4:12, 18-19. Now when Jesus had heard that John was cast into prison, he departed into Galilee; ... And Jesus walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers. And he saith unto them, "Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men." 

Mark 1:14, 16-17. Now after John was put in prison, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God. ... Now as he walked by the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew his brother casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers. And Jesus said unto them, "Come after me, and I will make you fishers of men."

 What was the sequence of events when the devil tempted Jesus? First the temple, then the mountain? Or the mountain, then the temple?

Matt 4:5, 8-9. Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple... . Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them; And saith unto him, "All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me." Luke 4:5, 7, 9.  And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time... . If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine... . And he brought him to Jerusalem, and set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, "If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence."

Did the man healed on the Sabbath have a withered hand or "the dropsy"?

Matt: 12:11-13. And when he was departed thence, he went into their synagogue: And behold, there was a man which had his hand withered. And they asked him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days? that they might accuse him. And he said unto them, What man shall there be among you, that shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the sabbath day, will he not lay hold on it, and lifth it out? How much then is a man better than a sheep? Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the sabbath days. Then said he to the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it forth; and it was restored, whole, like as the other.
Luke 14:1-6 And it came to pass, as he wwent into the house of one of the chief Pharisees to eat bread on the sabbath day, that they watched him. And, behold, there was a certain man before him which had the dropsy. And Jesus answering spake unto the lawyers and the Pharisees, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath day? And they held their peace. And he took him, and healed him, and let him go: And answered them, saying, Which of you shall have an ass or an ox fallen into a pit, and will not straightway pull him out on the sabbath day? And they could not answer him again to these things.

Luke 13:10-17. And he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the sabbath. And, behold, there was a woman which had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and was bowed together, and could in no wise lift up herself. And when Jesus saw her, he called her to him, and said unto her, Woman, thou art loosed from thine infirmity. And he laid his hands on her: and immediately she was made straight, and glorified God. And the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath days, There are six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the sabbath day. The Lord answerred him, and said, Thou hypocrite, doth not each one of you on the sabbath loose his ox or his ass from the stall, and lead him away to watering? And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day? And when he had said all these things, all his adversaries were ashamed: and all the people rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him.

Did Jesus curse the fig tree before or after he scourged the temple?

Matt. 21:12, 17-19. And Jesus went into the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves... . And he left them, and went out of the city into Bethany; and he lodged there. Now in the morning as he returned into the city, he hungered. And when he saw a fig tree in the way, he came to it, and found nothing thereon, but leaves only, and said unto it, "Let no fruit grow on thee henceforward for ever." And presently the fig tree withered away. Mark 11:13-15. And seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, he came, if haply he might find any thing thereon: and when he came to it, he found nothing but leaves; for the time of figs was not yet. And Jesus answered [?] and said unto it, "No man eat fruit of thee hereafter for ever." And his disciples heard it. And they come to Jerusalem: and Jesus went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves.

When asked question by the accusers at his trial, what did Jesus do?

Matt. 27:12. And when he was accused of the chief priests and elders, he answered nothing. 

Matt. 27:13, 14. Then said Pilate unto his, "Hearest thou not how many things they witness against thee?" And he answered him to never a word; insomuch the governor marvelled greatly.

John 18: 19, 20. The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine. Jesus answered him, "I spake openly to the world: I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing." 

John 18:33, 34. Then Pilate entered into the judgement hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, "Art thou the King of the Jews?" Jesus answered him, "Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me? John 18:35-38. Pilate answered ... "Thine own nation and the chief priest have delivered thee unto me; what hast thou done?" Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not of this world... ." Pilate therefore said unto him, "Art thou a king, then?" Jesus answered, "Thou sayeth that I am a king ... ." Pilate ... went out again ... and said, "I find in him no fault at all."

Did Jesus carry his own cross?

Matt. 27:32. And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross. 

Mark 15:21. And they compel [sic] one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross. 

Luke 23:26. And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear it after Jesus.

John 19:16-17. Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away. And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha.

What time was Jesus crucified?

Mark 15:25. And it was the third hour, and they crucified him. John 19:14. About the sixth hour ... they cried out, "Away with him, crucify him."

Was Jesus killed at Calvary, or on Golgotha?

Luke: 23:33. And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him ...  Matthew 27:33. And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place of the skull, ... 35. And they crucified him, ... 45. Now from the sixth hour there was a darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour. ... 50. Jesus, when he had cried again in a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. 

John 19:14. And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour, ... 16. Then delevered he (Pilate) him (Jesus) unto them (men/officers of the chief priests and Pharisees, the chief priests, and the Pharisees) to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away. 17. And he bearing his cross went forth unto a place called the place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew Golgotha (emphasis in original KJV): 18. Where they crucified him ... 30. ... he (Jesus) said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost

Was Jesus killed upon a cross—by crucifixion, or was he killed by an unknown method before he was hung upon a cross? or a tree?

Matthew 27:33. And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place of the skull, ... 35. And they crucified him, ... 45. Now from the sixth hour there was a darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour. ... 50. Jesus, when he had cried again in a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. 51. And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent; 52. And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose, 53. And came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many. 

Mark 15:25. And it was the third hour, and they crucified him. ... 33. And when the sixth hour was come, there was a darkness over the whole and until the ninth hour. ... 34. And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, ... My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? ...37. And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost. 38. And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom. 

Luke: 23:33. And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him ... 44. And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. 45. And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst. 46. And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, unto thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said this, he gave up the ghost. 

John 19:14. And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour, ... 16. Then delivered he (Pilate) him (Jesus) unto them (men/officers of the chief priests and Pharisees, the chief priests, and the Pharisees) to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away. 17. And he bearing his cross went forth unto a place called the place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew Golgotha (emphasis in original KJV): 18. Where they crucified him ... 30. ... he (Jesus) said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.

Deut. 21:22-23. And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be to be put to death, and thou shall hang him upon a tree: His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him that day: (for he that is hanged is accursed of God); that thy land not be defiled, which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance. [NOTE: These are the words of God as dictated to Moses, ordering a sequence of 1. putting to death a convict and then 2. hanging his body upon a tree, and, therefore, these words and this execution sequence are the Law to the Jews.] 

Acts 5:30: The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye slew and hanged on a tree. 

Acts 10:39: And we were witnesses of all things which he did both in the land of the Jews and in Jerusalem; whom they slew and hanged on a tree.

When Jesus died, was there or was there not an earthquake? Did or did not "saints" rise out of their graves and walk and talk with people?

Matt. 27:50-55. Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent; And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose, And came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many. Now when the centurion, and they that were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, "Truly this was the son of God." And many women were there beholding afar off, which followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering unto him. Mark 15:37-40. And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost. And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom. And when the centurion, which stood over against him, saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, he said, "Truly this man was the Son of God." There were also women looking on afar off. 

Luke 23:46-49. And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, "Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit." And having said thus, he gave up the ghost. Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, "Certainly this was a righteous man." And all the people that came together to that sight, beholding the things which were done, smote their breasts, and returned. And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding all these things. 

John: 19:28-30. After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst. Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth. And when Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.

This confusion of what happened concerning the earthquake and the opening of the Earth and the saints rising out of the ground and walking and thus appearing among humans is serious, for surely it would be so stunning that many of the people who were there who could read and write would have written about it to their friends and relatives and therefore we should have an extensive collection of corroborating correspondence. Alas! We do not!!

Where it is mentioned in Matthew there is no mention in Mark, Luke or John. This suggests that 1. there was no earthquake and dead risings; 2. the authors of the gospels surely were not present; 3. the gospels surely were written much later, and not by eyewitnesses.

From whence did Jesus ascend into Heaven? Bethany? Galilee? The Mount of Olives? Or was there no ascension of Jesus?

Luke 24: 50-51 [KJV] And he [JC] led them [the Apostles] out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried into heaven. 

Mark: 16: 6 An angel told Mary Magdalene, Mary, the mother of James, and Salomé, at the Tomb] and entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted. 6 And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him. 7. But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you. ... 19 So then after the Lord had spoken unto them [the Apostles, the eleven mentioned in Mark 16: 14], he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God. 

NOTE: There is no mention of an ascension of Jesus in St. Matthew or in St. John.

Acts 1:9, 12 [KJV] And when he [JC] had spoken these things, while they [the Apostles] beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight. ... then returned they unto Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is from Jerusalem a sabbath day's journey.

What are the Characteristics of Mystical Beings?

Is God righteous? Merciful? Or revengeful? Sadistic?

Ps. 145:17. The LORD is righteous in all his ways, and holy in all his works. 

Ps. 103:8. The LORD is merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and plenteous in mercy. 

Ps. 100:5. For the LORD is good; his mercy is everlasting.

1 Sam. 15:2-3.  Thus said the LORD of hosts, "I remember that which Amalek did to Israel, how he laid wait for him in the way, when he came up from Egypt [four hundred years previous]. Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass."

What are the characteristics of God? Is He of peace? Or war?

Rom. 15:33. Now the God of peace be with you. Exod. 15:3. The LORD is a man of war.

Is God gracious and merciful? Hateful and revengeful?

Joel 2:13. He is gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness, and repenteth him of the evil. 

Ps. 136:1-2. O give thanks unto the LORD; for he is good: for his mercy endureth for ever. O give thanks unto the God of gods: for his mercy endureth for ever. 

Deut. 32:4. He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgement: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he.

Nah. 1:2. God is jealous, and the LORD revengeth; the LORD revengeth, and is furious; the LORD will take vengeance on his adversaries, and he reserveth wrath for his enemies. 

Rev. 21:8. But the fearful and unbelieving ... shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone. 

Rom. 9:13. Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. 

Mark 16:16. He that believeth not shall be damned.

Miscellaneous Confusions

Did God create evil?

2 Peter 3:9. The Lord ... is not willing that any should perish. Prov. 16:4. The Lord hath made all things for himself: yea, even the wicked for the day of evil.

Does God change?

Mal. 3:6. I am the LORD, I change not. 

Num. 23:19. God is not a man that he should lie; neither the son of man that he should repent.

Gen. 6:6. And it repented the LORD that he had made man on earth, and it grieved him at his heart. 

Ps. 135:14. For the LORD will judge his people, and he will repent himself concerning his servants. 

Exod. 32:14. And the LORD repented of the evil he thought to do unto his people. 

Jon. 3:10. And God repented of the evil, that he had said that he would do unto them; and he did it not. 

2 Sam. 24:16. And when the angel stretched out his hand upon Jerusalem to destroy it, the LORD repented him of the evil. ...

The sins of the fathers visited upon the sons?

Exod. 34:17. Forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children's children, unto the third and to the fourth generation. 

Isa. 14:21. Prepare slaughter for his children for the iniquity of their fathers.

Ezek. 18:20. The soul that sinneth, it shall die. The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son; the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him. 

Deut. 24:16. The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the fathers: every man shall be put to death for his own sin.

Is there anything God can not do?

Mark 10:27; Matt. 19:26. With God all things are possible. 

Luke 1:37. For with God, nothing is impossible. 

Rev. 19:6. The Lord God omnipotent. 

Gen. 17:1. I am the Almighty God. 

John 3:35. The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand.

Judges 1:19. And the LORD was with Judah: and he drave out the inhabitants of the mountain; but could not drive out the inhabitants of the valley, because they had iron chariots. 

Mark 6:5. And he could do there do no mighty work.

Can any man look upon the face or figure of God? Has anyone ever seen Him?

John 1:18. No man hath seen God at any time. 

1 Tim. 6:16. Whom no man hath seen, nor can see. 

John 4:24. God is a Spirit. 

Exod. 33:20. Thou canst not see my face: for there shall no man see me, and live.

Exod. 24: 9-10. Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel: And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone. 

Exod. 33:22, 23. I will put thee in a clift of the rock, and will cover thee with my hand while I pass by: And I will take away mine hand, and thou shalt see my back parts; but my face shall not be seen. 

Amos 9:1. I saw the Lord standing upon the altar. 

Gen. 26:2. And the LORD appeared unto him [Isaac]. 

Exod. 33:11. And the Lord spake unto Moses, face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend. 

Gen. 32:30. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.

Can men test God?

Malachi 3:10 [KJV] Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse, that there may be meat in mine house, and prove me now herewith, saith the Lord of hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you out a blessing, that there shall not be roomenough to receive it.

Malachi 3:10 [NIV] "Bring the whole tithe unto the storehouse, that there may be food in my house. Test me in this," says the Lord Almighty, "and see if I will not throw open the floodgates of heaven and pour out so much blessing that you will not have room enough for it. ..."


Does this not say directly that humans can test God? Give him what he wants, as a test, and see what benefits he causes?

How does this relate to unanswered prayers from people who, theoretically, truly believe, and who truly praise, and who, therefore, ought to be rewarded, benefitted, from their loyalty? Should humans be happy with the lame excuse, "The gods have other plans," for unanswered prayers, prayers for people who are sick, injured, or dying, from people who truly believe, and love, and worship the gods?

Should men refuse the legal law?

Matt. 5:17-19. Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am come not to destroy, but to fulfill. Rom. 7:4. Wherefore, my brethren, ye also are become dead to the law by the body of Christ.

Are there any men without sin?

2 Chron. 6:36. There is no man which sinneth not. 

Eccles. 7:20. For there is not a just man upon earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not. 

Rom. 3:10. There is none righteous, no, not one.

1 John 3:9. Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God. 

Note: 1 John 3:8. He that committeth sin is of the Devil. [Some who are righteous by virtue of being born can become unrighteous by virtue of the commission of sin. This does not negate 1 John 3:9. Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin.]

Must a man do works to show his faith?

Rom. 4:5-6. But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness. Even as David also describeth the blessedness of the man, unto whom God imputed righteousness without works. 

Eph. 2:8, 9. For by grace are ye saved through faith, and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast.

James 2:14, 17, 24, 26. What doth it profit, my brethren, though a man say he hath faith, and have not works? Can faith save him? ... Even so faith, if it hath not works, is dead, being alone ... . Ye see then how that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only... . For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also. 

Rom. 4:15. For where no law is, there is no transgression.

Who Inspired the Scriptures?

1 Corinthians 14:33 For God is not the author of confusion ...
2 Timothy 3:16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God ...

Why are these two Scriptures, supposedly written hundreds of years apart, basically identical?

2 Kings 19
19:1 And it came to pass, when king Hezekiah heard it, that he rent his clothes, and covered himself with sackcloth, and went into the house of the LORD.   
19:2 And he sent Eliakim, which was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and the elders of the priests, covered with sackcloth, to Isaiah the prophet the son of Amoz.   
19:3 And they said unto him, Thus saith Hezekiah, This day is a day of trouble, and of rebuke, and blasphemy; for the children are come to the birth, and there is not strength to bring forth.   
19:4 It may be the LORD thy God will hear all the words of Rabshakeh, whom the king of Assyria his master hath sent to reproach the living God; and will reprove the words which the LORD thy God hath heard: wherefore lift up thy prayer for the remnant that are left.   
19:5 So the servants of king Hezekiah came to Isaiah.   
19:6 And Isaiah said unto them, Thus shall ye say to your master, Thus saith the LORD, Be not afraid of the words which thou hast heard, with which the servants of the king of Assyria have blasphemed me.   
19:7 Behold, I will send a blast upon him, and he shall hear a rumour, and shall return to his own land; and I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land.   
19:8 So Rabshakeh returned, and found the king of Assyria warring against Libnah: for he had heard that he was departed from Lachish.   
19:9 And when he heard say of Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, Behold, he is come out to fight against thee: he sent messengers again unto Hezekiah, saying,   
19:10 Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king of Judah, saying, Let not thy God in whom thou trustest deceive thee, saying, Jerusalem shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria.   
19:11 Behold, thou hast heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all lands, by destroying them utterly: and shalt thou be delivered?   
19:12 Have the gods of the nations delivered them which my fathers have destroyed; as Gozan, and Haran, and Rezeph, and the children of Eden which were in Thelasar?   
19:13 Where is the king of Hamath, and the king of Arpad, and the king of the city of Sepharvaim, of Hena, and Ivah?   
19:14 And Hezekiah received the letter of the hand of the messengers, and read it: and Hezekiah went up into the house of the LORD, and spread it before the LORD.   
19:15 And Hezekiah prayed before the LORD, and said, O LORD God of Israel, which dwellest between the cherubims, thou art the God, even thou alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth; thou hast made heaven and earth.   
19:16 LORD, bow down thine ear, and hear: open, LORD, thine eyes, and see: and hear the words of Sennacherib, which hath sent him to reproach the living God.   
19:17 Of a truth, LORD, the kings of Assyria have destroyed the nations and their lands,   
19:18 And have cast their gods into the fire: for they were no gods, but the work of men's hands, wood and stone: therefore they have destroyed them.   
19:19 Now therefore, O LORD our God, I beseech thee, save thou us out of his hand, that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that thou art the LORD God, even thou only.   
19:20 Then Isaiah the son of Amoz sent to Hezekiah, saying, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, That which thou hast prayed to me against Sennacherib king of Assyria I have heard.   
19:21 This is the word that the LORD hath spoken concerning him; The virgin the daughter of Zion hath despised thee, and laughed thee to scorn; the daughter of Jerusalem hath shaken her head at thee.   
19:22 Whom hast thou reproached and blasphemed? and against whom hast thou exalted thy voice, and lifted up thine eyes on high? even against the Holy One of Israel.   
19:23 By thy messengers thou hast reproached the LORD, and hast said, With the multitude of my chariots I am come up to the height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon, and will cut down the tall cedar trees thereof, and the choice fir trees thereof: and I will enter into the lodgings of his borders, and into the forest of his Carmel.   
19:24 I have digged and drunk strange waters, and with the sole of my feet have I dried up all the rivers of besieged places.   
19:25 Hast thou not heard long ago how I have done it, and of ancient times that I have formed it? now have I brought it to pass, that thou shouldest be to lay waste fenced cities into ruinous heaps.   
19:26 Therefore their inhabitants were of small power, they were dismayed and confounded; they were as the grass of the field, and as the green herb, as the grass on the house tops, and as corn blasted before it be grown up.   
19:27 But I know thy abode, and thy going out, and thy coming in, and thy rage against me.   
19:28 Because thy rage against me and thy tumult is come up into mine ears, therefore I will put my hook in thy nose, and my bridle in thy lips, and I will turn thee back by the way by which thou camest.   
19:29 And this shall be a sign unto thee, Ye shall eat this year such things as grow of themselves, and in the second year that which springeth of the same; and in the third year sow ye, and reap, and plant vineyards, and eat the fruits thereof.   
19:30 And the remnant that is escaped of the house of Judah shall yet again take root downward, and bear fruit upward.   
19:31 For out of Jerusalem shall go forth a remnant, and they that escape out of mount Zion: the zeal of the LORD of hosts shall do this.   
19:32 Therefore thus saith the LORD concerning the king of Assyria, He shall not come into this city, nor shoot an arrow there, nor come before it with shield, nor cast a bank against it.   
19:33 By the way that he came, by the same shall he return, and shall not come into this city, saith the LORD.   
19:34 For I will defend this city, to save it, for mine own sake, and for my servant David's sake.   
19:35 And it came to pass that night, that the angel of the LORD went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred fourscore and five thousand: and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses.
19:36 So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went and returned, and dwelt at Nineveh.
19:37 And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god, that Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with the sword: and they escaped into the land of Armenia. And Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead.
Isaiah 37
37:1 And it came to pass, when king Hezekiah heard it, that he rent his clothes, and covered himself with sackcloth, and went into the house of the LORD.   
37:2 And he sent Eliakim, who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and the elders of the priests covered with sackcloth, unto Isaiah the prophet the son of Amoz.   
37:3 And they said unto him, Thus saith Hezekiah, This day is a day of trouble, and of rebuke, and of blasphemy: for the children are come to the birth, and there is not strength to bring forth.   
37:4 It may be the LORD thy God will hear the words of Rabshakeh, whom the king of Assyria his master hath sent to reproach the living God, and will reprove the words which the LORD thy God hath heard: wherefore lift up thy prayer for the remnant that is left.   
37:5 So the servants of king Hezekiah came to Isaiah.   
37:6 And Isaiah said unto them, Thus shall ye say unto your master, Thus saith the LORD, Be not afraid of the words that thou hast heard, wherewith the servants of the king of Assyria have blasphemed me.   
37:7 Behold, I will send a blast upon him, and he shall hear a rumour, and return to his own land; and I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land.   
37:8 So Rabshakeh returned, and found the king of Assyria warring against Libnah: for he had heard that he was departed from Lachish.   
37:9 And he heard say concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, He is come forth to make war with thee. And when he heard it, he sent messengers to Hezekiah, saying,   
37:10 Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king of Judah, saying, Let not thy God, in whom thou trustest, deceive thee, saying, Jerusalem shall not be given into the hand of the king of Assyria.   
37:11 Behold, thou hast heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all lands by destroying them utterly; and shalt thou be delivered?   
37:12 Have the gods of the nations delivered them which my fathers have destroyed, as Gozan, and Haran, and Rezeph, and the children of Eden which were in Telassar?   
37:13 Where is the king of Hamath, and the king of Arphad, and the king of the city of Sepharvaim, Hena, and Ivah?   
37:14 And Hezekiah received the letter from the hand of the messengers, and read it: and Hezekiah went up unto the house of the LORD, and spread it before the LORD.   
37:15 And Hezekiah prayed unto the LORD, saying,   
37:16 O LORD of hosts, God of Israel, that dwellest between the cherubims, thou art the God, even thou alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth: thou hast made heaven and earth.   
37:17 Incline thine ear, O LORD, and hear; open thine eyes, O LORD, and see: and hear all the words of Sennacherib, which hath sent to reproach the living God.   
37:18 Of a truth, LORD, the kings of Assyria have laid waste all the nations, and their countries,   
37:19 And have cast their gods into the fire: for they were no gods, but the work of men's hands, wood and stone: therefore they have destroyed them.   
37:20 Now therefore, O LORD our God, save us from his hand, that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that thou art the LORD, even thou only.   
37:21 Then Isaiah the son of Amoz sent unto Hezekiah, saying, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Whereas thou hast prayed to me against Sennacherib king of Assyria:   
37:22 This is the word which the LORD hath spoken concerning him; The virgin, the daughter of Zion, hath despised thee, and laughed thee to scorn; the daughter of Jerusalem hath shaken her head at thee.   
37:23 Whom hast thou reproached and blasphemed? and against whom hast thou exalted thy voice, and lifted up thine eyes on high? even against the Holy One of Israel.   
37:24 By thy servants hast thou reproached the Lord, and hast said, By the multitude of my chariots am I come up to the height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon; and I will cut down the tall cedars thereof, and the choice fir trees thereof: and I will enter into the height of his border, and the forest of his Carmel.   
37:25 I have digged, and drunk water; and with the sole of my feet have I dried up all the rivers of the besieged places.   
37:26 Hast thou not heard long ago, how I have done it; and of ancient times, that I have formed it? now have I brought it to pass, that thou shouldest be to lay waste defenced cities into ruinous heaps.   
37:27 Therefore their inhabitants were of small power, they were dismayed and confounded: they were as the grass of the field, and as the green herb, as the grass on the housetops, and as corn blasted before it be grown up.   
37:28 But I know thy abode, and thy going out, and thy coming in, and thy rage against me.   
37:29 Because thy rage against me, and thy tumult, is come up into mine ears, therefore will I put my hook in thy nose, and my bridle in thy lips, and I will turn thee back by the way by which thou camest.   
37:30 And this shall be a sign unto thee, Ye shall eat this year such as groweth of itself; and the second year that which springeth of the same: and in the third year sow ye, and reap, and plant vineyards, and eat the fruit thereof.   
37:31 And the remnant that is escaped of the house of Judah shall again take root downward, and bear fruit upward:   
37:32 For out of Jerusalem shall go forth a remnant, and they that escape out of mount Zion: the zeal of the LORD of hosts shall do this.   
37:33 Therefore thus saith the LORD concerning the king of Assyria, He shall not come into this city, nor shoot an arrow there, nor come before it with shields, nor cast a bank against it.   
37:34 By the way that he came, by the same shall he return, and shall not come into this city, saith the LORD.   
37:35 For I will defend this city to save it for mine own sake, and for my servant David's sake.   
37:36 Then the angel of the LORD went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred and fourscore and five thousand: and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses.
37:37 So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went and returned, and dwelt at Nineveh.
37:38 And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god, that Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with the sword; and they escaped into the land of Armenia: and Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead.

Are some angels fallen? Demons?

1 Pet. 5:8. Your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour. 

Gal. 1:9. If any man preach any other gospel unto you that ye have received, let him be accursed.

Jude 6. And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left the own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgement of the great day.

Will the Earth abide forever?

Eccles. 1:4. One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh: but the earth abideth for ever. 

Ps. 104:5. Who laid the foundations of the earth, that it should not be removed for ever.

2 Pet. 3:10. The heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up. 

Heb. 1:10-11. Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands; They shall perish; but thou remainest.

Should a man plan for his own livelihood, and to provide for his own family?

Matt. 6:34. Take therefore no thought for the morrow: for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. 1 Tim. 5:8. But if any provide not for his own, and specially  for those if his own house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel.

What is wisdom?

This question is not answered. But there is a contradiction in regard to getting or possessing wisdom.

Prov. 4:7. Wisdom is the principal thing; therefore get wisdom: and with all thy getting get understanding. 

Prov. 3:13. Happy is the man that findeth wisdom, and the man that getteth understanding.

1 Cor. 1:19. For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent. 

Eccles. 1:18. For in much wisdom is much grief: and he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow.

Is there everlasting life after death?

Eccles. 9:5. The dead know not any thing, neither have they any more a reward. Matt. 25:46. These shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous unto life eternal.

How many sons did God father?

1 John 4:9. God sent his only begotten Son into the world. Job. 1:6. The sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them. 

Gen. 6:2. The sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair. 

 Can any man be accepted into heaven? Must a man be a Christian before he is accepted into heaven?

John 14:6. Jesus saith unto him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father except by me." 

Acts. 4:12. There is no other name under heaven given among men, by which we must be saved.

Acts 10:35. [In] every nation he that feareth him [God], and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him [God]. 

What happened at the tomb on the third day?


Mark 16:1-8 Matthew 28:1-10 Luke 24:1-12 John 20:1-18
Time Sunrise Toward dawn Early dawn Still dark
Cast of characters Mary Magdalene 
Mary, James' mother 
Salomé
Mary Magdalene 
Other Mary
Mary Magdalene 
Mary, James' mother 
Joanna 
Other women
Mary Magdalene 
"We" of Verse 2
Purpose To anoint the corpse. To see the tomb. To anoint the corpse. Unknown
Tomb Condition Open Earthquake/Angel rolled back the stone. 
The guard detached and frozen.
Open Open
Action Met one young man in a white robe in the tomb. Met one angel outside the tomb. Met two men in shining garments in the tomb. Ran to Peter to report that the corpse had been taken. 
Disciples returned with Mary, saw the tomb, left. 
Mary met two angels while outside the tomb.
Message of Man/Men/Angel/Angels Do not be afraid. 
Jesus is not here. 
Jesus has risen. 
Tell the disciples "He goes to Galilee, you will meet him there as he told you."
Do not be afraid. 
Jesus is not here. 
Jesus has risen. 
Tell the disciples "He goes to Galilee, you will meet him there as I have told you."
W seek the living among the dead? 
Jesus has risen. 
He rose as he told you he would when he was still in Galilee.
Why weep?
Reaction The women flee trembling. 
They say nothing to anyone.
The women leave in joy to tell the disciples. 
Jesus meets the women, they hold/worship him. 
Jesus repeats the angel's message.
The women leave and tell the disciples, are not believed. 
Peter runs to see the tomb.
Jesus meets Mary and says: "Do not hold me, I am going to my Father." 
Mary runs to tell the disciples.

What are the post-crucifixion appearances of Jesus?

 

Mark 16:1-20 Matthew 28 John 20, 21 Luke 24 Acts
Morning at the tomb Magdalene Magdalene 
Other Mary
Magdalene

Later, in or near Jerusalem Two [apostles?] on the road 
The eleven apostles

The ten apostles [minus Thomas] 
The eleven apostles
Peter 
Two [apostles?] on the road to Emmaus 
The eleven apostles

Later in Galilee "See him in Galilee." To eleven apostles upon a mountain To seven apostles on the Sea of Tiberius

Time unspecified



Acts 1: The eleven apostles 
Acts 9: To Saul [Paul] on the road to Damascus 
Acts 9: To Ananias in a vision 
Acts 22: To Paul on the road to Damascus [Repeat of the story told earlier in Acts 9]

Was Jesus the first to rise from the dead?

Acts 26:23  That Christ should suffer, and that he should be the first that should rise from the dead. 1 Samuel 28:11, 14  Then said the woman, Whom shall I bring up unto thee? And he said, Bring me up Samuel .... And he said unto her, What form is he of? And she said, An old man cometh up; and he is covered with a mantle. And Saul perceived that it was Samuel. 

1 Kings 17:22 And the LORD heard the voice of Elijah; and the soul of the child came into him again, and he revived. 

2 Kings 4:32-35  And when Elisha was come into the house, behold, the child was dead, and laid upon his bed. He went in therefore, and shut the door upon them twain, and prayed unto the LORD. And he went up, and lay upon the child, and put his mouth upon his mouth, and his eyes upon his eyes, and his hands upon his hands: and stretched himself upon the child; and the flesh of the child waxed warm. Then he returned, and walked in the house to and fro; and went up, and stretched himself upon him: and the child sneezed seven times. 

2 Kings 13:21 And it came to pass, as they were burying a man, that, behold, they spied a band of men; and they cast the man into the sepulchre of Elisha: and when the man was let down, and touched the bones of Elisha, he revived, and stood up on his feet. 

St. Matthew 9:23-25 And when Jesus came into the ruler's house, and saw the minstrels and the people making a noise, He said unto them, Give place: for the maid is not dead, but sleepeth. And they laughed him to scorn. But when the people were put forth, he went in, and took her by the hand, and the maid arose. 

St. Luke 7:12-15 Now when he came nigh to the gate of the city, behold, there was a dead man carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow: and much people of the city was with her. And when the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said unto her, Weep not. And he came and touched the bier: and they that bare him stood still. And he said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise. And he that was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he delivered him to his mother. 

St. Luke 9:30 And, behold, there talked with him two men, which were Moses and Elias. 

St. John 11:43 And when he thus had spoken, he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth.

Did Jesus promise a time period in which he would return and bring the Jews out of Roman rule?

Matt. 16:27, 28. For the son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works. Verily I say unto you, There be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom. 

Matt. 24:3, 4, 27, 29-31, 34, 35. And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, "Tell us, when shall these things be? And what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?" And Jesus answered and said unto them, ..." As the lightning coming out of the east, and shineth even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. ... Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other... Verily I say unto you, THIS GENERATION SHALL NOT PASS TILL ALL THESE THINGS BE FULFILLED. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away. 

Mark 9:1. And see said unto them, "Verily I say unto you, That there be some of them that stand here, which shall not taste of death, till they have seen the kingdom of God come with power. 

Mark 13:25, 30. And the stars of heaven shall fall, and the powers that are in heaven shall be shaken. And then they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds with great power and glory. And then shall he send his angels, from the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part of heaven... Verily I say unto you, THAT THIS GENERATION SHALL NOT PASS, TILL ALL THESE THINGS BE DONE. 

Luke 9:27. But I tell you of a truth, there be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the kingdom of God. 

Luke 21:20-28, 32. And when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh. Then let them which are in Judaea flee to the mountains; and let them which are in the midst of it depart out; and let not them that are in the countries enter thereinto. For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled, But woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck, in those days! For there shall be great distress in the land, and wrath upon the people. And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled. And there shall be sign in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth; for the powers of heaven shall be shaken, And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for you redemption draweth nigh....Verily I say unto you, THIS GENERATION SHALL NOT PASS AWAY, TILL ALL BE FULFILLED. 

John 5:28, 29. The hour is coming, in which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation. 

1 Thessalonians 4:14-17. [KJV] For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him. For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep. For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord. 

1 Thessalonians 4:15-17. [NRSV] For this we declare to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, will by no means precede those who have died. For the Lord himself, with a cry of command, with the archangel's call and with the sound of God's trumpet, will descend from heaven, and the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up in the clouds together with them to meet the Lord in the air; and so we will be with the Lord forever.

Acts 1:6-7. When they therefore were come together, they asked of him [Jesus], saying "Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?" And he [Jesus] said unto them, "It is not for you to know the times or the seasons, which the Father has put in his own power.

Are women equal to men? Or subservient to men?

I Corinthians 14:34,35: Let your women keep silent in the churches, for they are not permitted to speak; but they are to be submissive, as the law also says. And if they want to learn something, let them ask their own husbands at home; for it is shameful for women to speak in church.

Does the Bible sanction slavery?

Ephesians 6:5-8 [KJV]: Servants, be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ; Not with eyeservice, as men-pleasers, but as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart, With good will doing service, as to the Lord and not to men: Knowing that whatever good thing any man doeth, the same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or free.

Does the Bible sanction rape?

Note (1) that if the rape is not 'discovered', i.e. observed by eyewitnesses who report the rape on behalf of the victim, the victim's complaint apparently being of no importance if not corroborated by eyewitnesses, then, at least in theory, the rapist has no liabilities; note also (2) that the rapist cannot be prosecuted, that the rape is considered to be a civil problem requiring only a payment of monies to the victim' father, and not to the woman.

Deuteronomy 22:28-29 [KJV]: If a man find a damsel that is a virgin, which is not betrothed, and lay hold on her, and lie with her, and they be found; Then the man that lay with her shall give unto the damsel's father fifty shekels of silver, and she shall be his wife; because he has humbled her, and he may not put her away all his days.

Deuteronomy 22:28-29 [NIV]: If a man happens to meet a virgin who is not pledged to be married and rapes her and they are discovered, he shall pay the girl's father fifty shekels of silver. He must marry the girl, for he has violated her. He can never divorce her as long as he lives.

[1] From a conversation with a theist friend.

[2] Peter A. Angeles, Harper-Collins Dictionary of Philosophy, Harper-Collins, 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY 10022, 1992.

laws of thought, the three also called the three principles of thought, the  formulation of what have been called the Three Laws of Thought goes back to Plato and Aristotle. These laws have been regarded as ontologically real (describing the ultimate features of reality); as cognitively necessary (no consistent thinking is possible without their use; all coherent thought, and all logical systems, rely on them for justification; their denial presupposes their use in denying them); and as uninferred knowledge (the immediate and direct result of a rational examination of the relations of timeless universals). In modem times, these Laws of Thought have been regarded as only three among many principles, or rules, of inference that can be invented and used in logic; or as definitionally true (tautologous) and hence irrefutable.

1. the Law of Identity: If p is true, then p is true. (If p is false, then p is false.) If a thing A is A, then it is A. A is A. Everything is what it is (and cannot, at the time it is what it is, be something else). 2. the Law of Noncontradiction (also called the Law of Contradiction): p cannot be both true and false (at the same time and in the same respect). A thing A cannot be both A and not A (at the time it is A). 3. the Law of Excluded Middle: either p is true or p is false; one or the other, but not both at the same time and in the same respect. A thing A is either A or it is not A.

[NOTE: p = proposition = assertion of fact, claim of truth]